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Teaching Aptitude | DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES

DIFFERENT TYPES OF TEACHING TECHNIQUES NOTES FOR UGC NET EXAM PAPER1

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TEACHING TECHNIQUES  Objective

It is impossible for one post to cover the entire discipline of teaching methods. However, we believe that we are offering a foundation that will  give UGC NET Aspirants to understand  different TEACHING TECHNIQUES methods and they would be able to answer most of Questions based on topic.

  • We will explain the meaning of teaching various techniques and strategies for teaching
  • Explain different methods of sustaining effective classroom organisation
  • You will be able to answer Questions based on Teaching methods & techniques (Almost asked two Question every year in paper 1 )

Introduction

Teaching and learning are the two sides of a coin. The most accepted criterion for measuring good teaching is the amount of student learning that occurs. There are consistently high correlations between students’ ratings of the “amount learned” in the course and their overall ratings of the teacher and the course.
Those who learned more gave their teachers higher ratings (Cohen, 1981; Theall and Franklin, 2001).

“Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I understand.”

 

There are different types of teaching methods which can be categorised into three broad types. These are teacher-centred methods, learner-centred methods, content-focused methods and interactive/participative methods.

INSTRUCTOR/TEACHER CENTRED METHODS

Here the teacher casts himself/herself in the role of being a master of the subject matter. The teacher is looked upon by the learners as an expert or an authority. Learners on the other hand are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of knowledge from the teacher. Examples of such methods are expository or lecture methods – which require little or no involvement of learners in the teaching process. It is also for this lack of involvement of the learners in what they are taught, that such methods are called “closed-ended”.

LEARNER-CENTRED METHODS

In learner-centred methods, the teacher/instructor is both a teacher and a learner at the same time. In the words of Lawrence Stenhouse, the teacher plays a dual role as a learner as well “so that in his classroom extends rather than constricts his intellectual horizons”. The teacher also learns new things everyday which he/she didn’t know in the process of teaching. The teacher, “becomes a resource rather than an authority”. Examples of learner-centred methods are discussion method, discovery or inquiry based approach and the Hill’s model of learning through discussion (LTD).

CONTENT-FOCUSED METHODS

In this category of methods, both the teacher and the learners have to fit into the content that is taught. Generally, this means the information and skills to be taught are regarded as sacrosanct or very important. A lot of emphasis is laid on the clarity and careful analyses of content. Both the teacher and the learners cannot alter or become critical of anything to do with the content. An example of a method which subordinates the interests of the teacher and learners to the content is the programmed learning approach.

INTERACTIVE/PARTICIPATIVE METHODS

This fourth category borrows a bit from the three other methods without necessarily laying emphasis unduly on either the learner, content or teacher. These methods are driven by the situational analysis of what is the most appropriate thing for us to learn/do now given the situation of learners and the teacher. They require a participatory understanding of varied domains and factors.

 

Details of Various Methods with Advantages & Disadvantages 

METHOD

USES

ADVANTAGES

DISADVANTAGES

THE LECTURE METHOD
A formal or semi-formal discourse is which the instructor presents a series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains relationships
1. To orient students.
2. To introduce a subject.
3. To give directions on procedures.
4. To present basic material.
5. To introduce a demonstration, discussion, or performance.
6. To illustrate application of rules, principles, or concepts.
7. To review, clarify, emphasise or summarise.
1. Saves time.
2. Permits flexibility.
3. Requires less rigid space requirement.
4. Permits adaptability.
5. Permits versatility.
6. Permits better centre over contact and sequence.
1. Involves one way communication.
2. Poses problems in skill teaching.
3. Encourages student passiveness.
4. Poses difficulty in gauging student reaction.
5. Require highly skilled instructors.
THE DISCUSSION METHOD
A method in which group discussion techniques are used to reach instructional objectives.
1. To develop imaginative solutions to problems.
2. To stimulate thinking and interest and to secure student participation.
3. To emphasise main teaching points.
4. To supplement lectures, reading, or laboratory exercises.
5. To determine how well student understands concepts and principles.
6. To prepare students for application of theory of procedure.
7. To summarise, clarify points or review.
1. Increase students interest
2. Increases students acceptance and commitments.
3. Utilises student knowledge and experience.
4. Results in more permanent learning because of high degree of student participation.
1. Require highly skilled instructor.
2. Requires preparation by student.
3. Limits content.
4. Consumes time.
5. Restricts size of groups.
THE PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION METHOD
A method of self-instruction
1. To provide remedial instruction.
2. To provide make-up instruction for late arrivals, absentees, or translents.
3. To maintain previously learned skills which are not performed frequently enough.
4. To provide retraining on equipment and procedures which have become obsolete.
5. To upgrade production.
6. To accelerate capable students.
7. To provide enough common background among students.
8. To provide the review and practice of knowledge and skills.
1. Reduce failure rate.
2. Improves end-of-course proficiency.
3. Saves time.
4. Provides for self instruction.
1. Require local or commercial preparation.
2. Requires lengthy programmer training.
3. Increases expenses.
4. Requires considerable lead time.
THE STUDY ASSIGNMENT METHOD
A method in which the instructor assigns reading to books, periodicals, project or research papers or exercises for the practice.
1. To orient students to a topic prior to classroom or Laboratory work.
2. To set the stage for a lecture demonstration or discussion.
3. To provide for or capitalise on individual differences in ability, background, or experience through differentiated assignments.
4. To provide for the review of material covered in class or to give practice.
5. To provide enrichment material.
1. Increase coverage of material.
2. Reduce classroom time.
3. Permits individual attention.
1. Require careful planning and follow up.
2. Poses evaluation problem.
3. Produce non-standard results.
THE TUTORIAL METHOD
A method of instruction in which an instructor works directly with an individual student.
1. To reach highly complicated skills operations or operations involving danger or expensive equipment.
2. To provide individualised remedial assistance.
1. Permits adaptive instruction.
2. Stimulates active participation.
3. Promotes safety.
1. Requires highly competent instructor.
2. Demands time and money.
THE SEMINAR METHOD
A tutorial arrangement involving the instructor and groups, rather than instructor and individual.
1. To provide general guidance for a group working on an advanced study or research project.
2. To exchange information on techniques and approaches being explored by members of a study or research group.
3. To develop new and imaginative solutions to problems under study by the group.
1. Provides motivation and report.
2. Stimulates active participation.
3. Permits adaptive instruction.
1. Requires highly competent instructor.
2. Poses evaluation problems.
3. Is more costly than most other methods.
THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD
A method of instruction where the instructor by actually performing an operation or doing a job shows the students what to do, how to do it, and through explanations brings out why, where, and when it is done.
1. To teach manipulative operations or procedures.
2. To teach troubleshooting.
3. To illustrate principles.
4. To teach operation or functioning of equipment.
5. To teach teamwork.
6. To set standards of workmanship.
7. To teach safety procedures.
1. Minimise damage and waste
2. Saves time
3. Can be presented to large groups.
1. Require careful preparation and rehearsal.
2. Requires special classroom arrangements.
THE DEMONSTRATION METHOD
A method of instruction is required to perform under controlled conditions the operations, skills or movement being taught.
1. To teach manipulative operations or procedures.
2. To teach operation or functioning of equipment.
3. To teach team skills
4. To teach safety procedures.
1. Builds confidence.
2. Enable learning evaluation.
3. Reduces damages and waste.
4. Promotes safety.
1. Requires tools and equipment.
2. Requires large block.
3. Requires more instructors.
THE BUZZ GROUP 1. To develop and express imaginative ideas, opinions.
2. Stimulate thinking.
1. Help trainers to draw breath.
2. Gauge the mood by listening to some discussion.
3. Change pace of discussion.
4. Encourage participants to reflect what was learnt.
1. Unfamiliarity in use.
2. Time required.
3. Need for group leaders.
BRAINSTORMING 1. Discover new ideas, thoughts and responses very quickly. 1. Leads to a very animated and energising session.
2. More reserved participants feel free to contribute.
1. It takes time particularly if it is a large group.
2. May consume a lot of material e.g. flipcharts or writing materials.
3. Requires high level facilitation skills.
ROLE PLAYS 1. Exploring and improving interviewing techniques and examining complexities and potential conflicts of groups.
2. To consolidate different lessons in one setting.
1. Good energizers.
2. Promotes empathy of trainees for other situation.
3. Encourrages creativity in learning.
1. Participants might be reluctant.
2. May not work with trainees who do not know each other well.

 

Few Key Points to be Noted for Methods of Teaching

Lecture Method

  • It creates new ideas.
  • It is good for large class.
  • Teacher is experienced and has mastery on subject, explain all points and can answer all questions raised by students.
  • Students can ask if they need any clarification.
  • Learn through listening
  • Teacher explains all points.
  • Students give their input
  • Teacher discuss whole topic in the class in easy language students can easily understand the topic.\
  • It is good for large class.
  • Teacher provides all knowledge related to topic.
  • Time saving as teacher is supposed to finish lecture in time.
  • Students give their views at the end of lecture.
  • Students can ask question if they have any problem to understand lecture.
  • Students attentively listen lecture and take notes as the teacher ask questions at the end of lecture.
  • Students know and understand basic concepts.
  • Teacher knows all the students so he/she can use suitable strategies for the class to make them understand.
  • Teacher is experienced and has mastery on subject and can answer all questions by students.
  • Teacher share information with students so it creates interest in students.
  • Students are more involved and participate when teacher ask question.
  • Teacher provides notes.
  • Students easily understand every point.
  • Students share knowledge with teacher.
  • Teacher is role model for students.
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Group discussion:

• Students listen to other’s opinion & express their opinion.
• Discuss with teachers the points that were missed during discussion.
• Students learn on their own & find out key points.
• Students exchange their ideas.
• Students get point of view of all and not only those who always speak.
• After discussion when students give their presentation, teacher corrects their mistakes.
• Students can make their own notes.
• The learning is more effective.
• They don’t have to rely on rote learning.
• Develops creativity among students.
• It evokes thinking among students.
• Students have time for preparation of topic.
• Students should have material and knowledge before discussion. Suggestion
• Only those students participate who have confidence rest do not participate.
• Concepts become clear after discussion.
• Every student gives his/ her opinion.

Individual presentation

• Hamm (2008) quoted Rafe; “A presentation involves motivating listeners to accept a new idea, alter an existing
opinion, or act on a given premise.”
• Students first thoroughly understand the topic before giving presentation i.e. mastery on topic.
• It increases confidence among students.
• Good way to learn for only one student who is presenting.
• Students search lot of books to collect material
• Teacher’s supervision is important

Assignment

• It enhances the ability of research on any topic as the students search topic from different books, websites etc.
• Active learning

Seminars

• Give Chance to meet other people of same profession.
• Motivate and make student active in learning.
• Interested method.

Workshops

• Give Chance to meet other people of same profession.

Conferences

• Give Chance to meet other people of same profession.
• Networking with other institutions and professionals.

Brain storming

• More interesting
• More informative
• Gain knowledge
• Learning is effective
• More participation of students
• Students give their opinion
• Active learning
• Creative thinking is encouraged.
• Students think beyond their knowledge.
• Every one gets the chance to express their thoughts.
• Simple topics can be learnt through different angles.

Role play

• Interesting method
• Creative thinking is encouraged.
• Students think beyond their knowledge.
• Students enjoy the situation
• Active learning
• Easy to learn

Case study

• Active learning
• Creative thinking is encouraged.
• Students think beyond their knowledge.

References :

  • https://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/assets/hip/gb/hip_gb_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0135145724.pdf
  • http://www2.tulane.edu/som/ome/upload/ComparisonOfTeachingMethodologies.pdf
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  2. SATISHBOYA says

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  3. pratyaksha tripathi says

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