Teaching is an art, and like every art, it demands creativity and innovation. The way we teach, the strategies we use, and the methodologies we apply can make a significant difference in the learning outcomes of our students. Thus, it is essential to know about Teaching Methodology- Different Types of Teaching Methods to make the teaching-learning process more effective and enjoyable.
In this article, we will discuss various teaching methods that can help educators create an engaging and interactive learning environment for their students.
Updated Syllabus Topics NTA UGC NET EXAM
(Click on the link it will take you to the page which contains study notes on given topic)
- Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.
- Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.
- Factors affecting teaching related to Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.
- Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher-centred vs. Learner centred methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).[This Post]
- Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.
- Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer-based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.
- Solved MCQ Based on last 10 Year’s Exam & Other Frequently asked questions
Introduction to Teaching Methodology
Teaching and learning are the two sides of a coin. The most accepted criterion for measuring good teaching is the amount of student learning that occurs. There are consistently high correlations between students’ ratings of the “amount learned” in the course and their overall ratings of the teacher and the course.
“Tell me, I forget. Show me, I remember. Involve me, I understand.”Those who learned more gave their teachers higher ratings (Cohen, 1981; Theall and Franklin, 2001).
There are different types of teaching methods that can be categorized into four broad types.
- Teacher-centred methods,
- Learner-centred methods,
- Content-focused methods; and
- Interactive/participative methods.
Here the teacher casts himself/herself in the role of being a master of the subject matter. The teacher is looked upon by the learners as an expert or an authority. Learners, on the other hand, are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of knowledge from the teacher.
Examples of such methods are expository or lecture methods – which require little or no involvement of learners in the teaching process. It is also for this lack of involvement of the learners in what they are taught, that such methods are called “closed-ended”.
In learner-centred methods, the teacher/instructor is both a teacher and a learner at the same time. In the words of Lawrence Stenhouse, the teacher plays a dual role as a learner as well “so that in his classroom extends rather than constricts his intellectual horizons”.
The teacher also learns new things every day that he/she didn’t know in the process of teaching. The teacher “becomes a resource rather than an authority”. Examples of learner-centred methods are the discussion method, the discovery or inquiry-based approach, and Hill’s model of learning through discussion (LTD).
In this category of methods, both the teacher and the learners have to fit into the content that is taught. Generally, this means the information and skills to be taught are regarded as sacrosanct or very important.
A lot of emphasis is laid on clarity and careful analyses of content. Both the teacher and the learners cannot alter or become critical of anything to do with the content. An example of a method that subordinates the interests of the teacher and learners to the content is the programmed learning approach.
This fourth category borrows a bit from the three other methods without necessarily laying emphasis unduly on either the learner, content, or teacher. These methods are driven by the situational analysis of what is the most appropriate thing for us to learn/do now given the situation of learners and the teacher.
Details of Various Methods with Advantages & Disadvantages
The lecture method is one of the most traditional and widely used teaching methods. In this method, the teacher delivers the information to the students in a structured and organized manner. This method is suitable for large groups of students and is most effective when the material being presented is complex or theoretical.
- To orient students.
- To introduce a subject.
- To give directions on procedures.
- To present basic material.
- To introduce a demonstration, discussion, or performance.
- To illustrate the application of rules, principles, or concepts.
- To review, clarify, emphasize or summarise.
A formal or semi-formal discourse in which the instructor presents a series of events, facts, or principles, explores a problem or explains relationships
- It creates new ideas.
- It is good for a large class.
- The teacher is experienced and has mastery of the subject, explains all points, and can answer all questions raised by students.
- Students can ask if they need any clarification.
- Learn through listening
- The teacher explains all the points.
- Students give their input
- The teacher discusses the whole topic in the class in an easy language so students can easily understand the topic.\
- It is good for a large class.
- The teacher provides all knowledge related to the topic.
- Time-saving as a teacher is supposed to finish the lecture on time.
- Students give their views at the end of the lecture.
- Students can ask the question if they have any problems understanding the lecture.
- Students attentively listen to a lecture and take notes as the teacher ask questions at the end of the lecture.
- Students know and understand basic concepts.
- The teacher knows all the students so he/she can use suitable strategies for the class to make them understand.
- The teacher is experienced and has mastery of a subject and can answer all questions by students.
- Teachers share information with students so it creates interest in students.
- Students are more involved and participate when the teacher asks questions.
- The teacher provides notes.
- Students easily understand every point.
- Students share knowledge with the teacher.
- The teacher is a role model for students.
Requires less rigid space requirement.
Permits better centre over contact and sequence.
|Involves one-way communication.|
Poses problems in skill teaching.
Encourages student passiveness.
Poses difficulty in gauging student reaction.
Require highly skilled instructors.
The discussion method involves encouraging students to share their ideas and opinions about a particular topic. This method is effective when the goal is to promote critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
- To develop imaginative solutions to problems.
- To stimulate thinking and interest and to secure student participation.
- To emphasize main teaching points.
- To supplement lectures, reading & laboratory exercises.
- To determine how well the student understands concepts and principles.
- To prepare students for the application of the theory of procedure.
- To summarise, clarify points or review.
It also helps to promote collaboration and teamwork among students.
- A method in which group discussion techniques are used to reach instructional objectives.
- Students listen to others’ opinions & express their opinion.
- Discuss with teachers the points that were missed during the discussion.
- Students learn on their own & find out key points.
- Students exchange their ideas.
- Students get point of view of all and not only those who always speak.
- After discussion when students give their presentation, the teacher corrects their mistakes.
- Students can make their own notes.
- The learning is more effective.
- They don’t have to rely on rote learning.
- Develops creativity among students.
- It evokes thinking among students.
- Students have time for the preparation of the topic.
- Students should have material and knowledge before the discussion. Suggestion
- Only those students participate who have confidence rest do not participate.
- Concepts become clear after discussion.
- Every student gives his/ her opinion.
|Increase students interest|
Increases students’ acceptance and commitments.
Utilizes student knowledge and experience.
Results in more permanent learning because of the high degree of student participation.
|Require highly skilled instructors.|
Requires preparation by the student.
Restricts the size of groups.
The demonstration method involves showing the students how to do something rather than just telling them. This method is most effective when teaching practical skills or hands-on subjects such as science or engineering.
A method of instruction where the instructor by actually performing an operation or doing a job shows the students what to do, and how to do it, and through explanations brings out why, where, and when it is done.
- To teach manipulative operations or procedures.
- To teach troubleshooting.
- To illustrate principles.
- To teach the operation or functioning of equipment.
- To teach teamwork.
- To set standards of workmanship.
- To teach safety procedures.
|Minimize damage and waste|
Can be presented to large groups.
Enable learning evaluation.
|Require careful preparation and rehearsal.|
Requires special classroom arrangements.
Requires tools and equipment.
Requires more instructors.
Project-Based/Assignment-Based Learning Method
The project-based learning method involves students working on a project or assignment over an extended period of time. This method is effective when the goal is to promote creativity, problem-solving, and collaboration skills.
A method in which the instructor assigns reading to books, periodicals, projects,s or research papers or exercises for the practice.
- To orient students to a topic prior to classroom or Laboratory work.
- It enhances the ability to research any topic as the student search for topics from different books, websites, etc.
- Active learning
- To set the stage for a lecture demonstration or discussion.
- To provide for or capitalize on individual differences in ability, background, or experience through differentiated assignments.
- To provide for the review of material covered in class or to give practice.
- To provide enrichment material.
|Increase coverage of material.|
Reduce classroom time.
Permits individual attention.
|Require careful planning and follow-up.|
Poses an evaluation problem.
Produce non-standard results.
Programmed Instruction Method
- A method of self-instruction
- To provide remedial instruction.
- To provide make-up instruction for late arrivals, absentees, or translations.
- To maintain previously learned skills that are not performed frequently enough.
- To provide retraining on equipment and procedures which have become obsolete.
- To upgrade production.
- To accelerate capable students.
- To provide enough common background among students.
- To provide the review and practice of knowledge and skills.
|Reduce failure rate.|
Improves end-of-course proficiency.
Provides for self-instruction.
|Require local or commercial preparation.|
Requires lengthy programmer training.
Requires considerable lead time.
Few Additional Types of Teaching Methods:
- Collaborative Learning Method: The collaborative learning method involves students working together in groups to solve problems or complete tasks. This method is effective when the goal is to promote teamwork, communication, and problem-solving skills.
- Inquiry-Based Learning Method: The inquiry-based learning method involves students exploring a particular topic or question and developing their understanding through inquiry and investigation. This method is effective when the goal is to promote independent thinking, curiosity, and creativity.
- Flipped Classroom Method: The flipped classroom method involves students learning the material at home through videos, readings, or other resources, and then using class time to apply what they’ve learned through activities or discussions. This method is effective when the goal is to promote independent learning and self-directed study.
Off-line vs. On-line methods
Differences Between Online Learning and Offline Learning
The main difference between online and offline learning is location. With offline learning, participants are required to travel to the training location, typically a lecture hall, college, or classroom. With online learning, on the other hand, the training can be conducted from practically anywhere in the world. Participants simply need to log on to the internet from their home, work or even their local coffee shop.
Another difference is the flexibility offered. Online learning usually has a more flexible timescale. As a trainer, you can offer your support via email or through an online chat system. With offline learning, it is typically carried out between office hours and doesn’t offer as much flexibility to the learner or the trainer.
What are the benefits of online vs offline learning?
Although online learning has become the preferred method for the majority of learners, it’s important not to dismiss the benefits of offline training too.
With online training courses, you and the course attendees benefit from a more casual, flexible approach. Being unrestricted in regard to location and times means every learner can benefit from the courses.
With offline learning, it’s easier to ensure attendees are paying attention to the training. Some learners also find it easier to retain the knowledge and skills they’ve learned through offline training than they do with online training.
As there are benefits to both learning options, it makes sense to offer a combined online and offline learning approach as a trainer.
FAQ on Teaching Methodology
What is Teaching Methodology?
Teaching methodology refers to the approach that educators use to teach their students. It involves the combination of various techniques, strategies, and activities that aim to improve student learning outcomes.
What is the best teaching method?
The best teaching method depends on the subject matter, the goals of the lesson, and the learning styles of the students. Each method has its strengths and weaknesses, and the most effective teaching approach often involves a combination of methods.
How do I know which teaching method to use?
Consider the subject matter, the goals of the lesson, and the learning styles of the students. Experiment with different methods and ask for feedback from your students to find the most effective teaching approach.
Can I use multiple teaching methods in one lesson?
Yes, using multiple teaching methods in one lesson can help to engage students with different learning styles and promote a deeper understanding of the material.
What are the Different Teaching Methodologies?
There are several different teaching methodologies, including:
How to Choose the Best Teaching Methodology?
Choosing the best teaching methodology depends on several factors, including the learning objectives, the student’s learning style, the subject matter, and the resources available. Educators should choose the most appropriate methodology that aligns with their student’s needs and learning goals.
What is the Importance of Teaching Methodology?
The teaching methodology is essential for effective teaching and learning. It helps educators to deliver their content in a way that is engaging, interactive, and meaningful to their students. It also enables them to personalize their teaching approach to cater to their student’s individual needs.
What are the Advantages of Using Different Teaching Methodologies?
Using different teaching methodologies has several advantages, including:
Enhanced student engagement
Improved student motivation
Increased student participation
Greater retention of information
Improved critical thinking skills
Increased collaboration and teamwork
What are the Disadvantages of Using Different Teaching Methodologies?
Using different teaching methodologies also has some disadvantages, including:
Time-consuming preparation and implementation
Possible resistance from students who prefer traditional teaching methods
Need for sufficient resources, such as technology and materials
Potential for ineffective implementation if not executed correctly
How Can Teachers Implement Teaching Methodologies in Their Classrooms?
Teachers can implement teaching methodologies in their classrooms by following these steps:
Identify the learning objectives and student needs
Choose the most appropriate methodology
Prepare the necessary resources and materials
Implement the methodology effectively
Evaluate the effectiveness of the methodology
What are the Key Elements of Effective Teaching Methodology?
Effective teaching methodology should include the following key elements:
1. Clear learning objectives
2. Active student engagement
3. Relevance to real-life situations
4. Appropriate assessment and evaluation methods
5. Opportunities for feedback and reflection
What is the Role of Technology in Teaching Methodology?
Technology plays a vital role in teaching methodology, allowing educators to deliver content more effectively and efficiently. It also enables them to personalize their approach to cater to their student’s individual needs, provide interactive and engaging learning experiences, and offer access to a vast range of online resources and tools.
How to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Teaching Methodology?
Evaluating the effectiveness of teaching methodology is crucial to determine whether it is achieving the desired learning outcomes. It involves collecting data on student performance, engagement, and satisfaction, and analyzing this data to identify areas for improvement.
What is the Difference Between Teaching Methodology and Pedagogy?
Pedagogy refers to the broader concept of teaching and learning, while teaching methodology is a specific approach to teaching that educators use to achieve their pedagogical goals. The teaching methodology is a subset of pedagogy, which also encompasses other aspects such as curriculum design, assessment, and evaluation.
What is the Future of Teaching Methodology?
The future of teaching methodology is likely to involve a greater emphasis on technology-enabled learning, personalized learning approaches, and student-centred teaching. As technology continues to evolve, educators will have access to a wider range of tools and resources to deliver more effective and engaging learning experiences.
What are Some Common Myths About Teaching Methodology?
Some common myths about teaching methodology include:
1. There is a one-size-fits-all approach to teaching
2. Technology can replace traditional teaching methods entirely
3. Lecture-based teaching is outdated and ineffective
4. Student-centred teaching is always the most effective approach
Can a single teaching methodology be effective for all subjects?
No, a single teaching methodology may not be effective for all subjects, as different subjects require different teaching approaches. For example, the inquiry-based approach may be more effective for science and math, while the discussion-based approach may work better for social studies and literature. Educators should choose the teaching methodology that aligns with the subject matter and learning goals.
How important is student feedback in evaluating teaching methodology effectiveness?
Student feedback is crucial in evaluating teaching methodology effectiveness, as it provides insight into what is working and what needs improvement. Educators should regularly gather feedback from their students and use it to make changes to their teaching approach. By incorporating student feedback, educators can improve learning outcomes and increase student engagement.
How can teachers effectively integrate technology into their teaching methodology?
Teachers can effectively integrate technology into their teaching methodology by choosing tools and resources that align with their teaching goals and students’ needs. For example, they can use educational apps and online resources to provide engaging and interactive learning experiences. Teachers should also ensure that students have access to the necessary technology and receive adequate training on how to use it.
What is the role of the teacher in student-centred teaching methodology?
In student-centred teaching methodology, the role of the teacher is to facilitate learning and provide guidance and support to students. Teachers should encourage students to take responsibility for their learning and provide opportunities for collaboration and self-directed learning. The teacher’s role is to create a supportive learning environment that empowers students to take ownership of their learning and achieve their full potential.
Teaching methodology plays a vital role in delivering effective and engaging learning experiences for students. By understanding the different methodologies available and choosing the most appropriate approach for their students’ needs, educators can improve learning outcomes and student engagement. By staying updated on the latest teaching methodologies and techniques, educators can continue to enhance their teaching practice and deliver the best possible learning experiences for their students.
This is such a useful article. I just started teaching ESL to elementary students in South Korea and it is not easy. I feel like there is a spatk I am missing.
one of the best content on teaching methodology, I have read so far. thank you for sharing such a useful article with us.