Register Now

Login

Lost Password

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email.

Login

Register Now

Dear User, There is some technical issue going on due to which Single Sign in Function Not working with Online Portal of TEST EXAM. You can separately register on online test portal and continue to attempt test. Sorry for inconvenience caused

Study Material for Higher Education System, Governance, Administration

Study Material for Higher Education System, Governance, Administration

This is common trend that every year around 5-6 Question has been asked in UGC PAPER 1 from Study Material for Higher Education System, Governance, Administration. Most of the Question were asked from Higher Education Notes or from Constitution of INDIA.

We have already covered some topics of Higher education in previous article. Here we will cover some important aspects from constitution of INDIA for UGC NET PAPER 1.

Topics:

  • Introduction of Indian constitution
  • Articles in Our Constitution
  • Fundamental rights and duties
  • Apex bodies like election commission  and state governing bodies
  • Parliament

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens. It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world. The nation is governed on the basis of this Constitution. B. R. Ambedkar is regarded as the chief architect of the Indian Constitution.

At the time of independence in August 15th 1947, the State of Jammu and Kashmir decided not to join either India or Pakistan. However, soon Pakistan attempted to annex the State military. Meanwhile, the Maharaja signed the “Instrument of accession” with India along with certain concessions for the autonomy of the State. article 370 in Part XXI of the Indian Constitution grants a special status to Jammu and Kashmir

The Indian constitution is the world’s longest constitution. At the time of commencement, the constitution had 395 articles in 22 parts and 8 schedules. It consists of almost 80,000 words. The Constitution, in its current form (September 2012), consists of a preamble, 25 parts containing 448 articles, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 100 amendments, the latest of which came into force on 1 August 2015.[**Check Updated here ]

Constitution of India, 1949 Preamble

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN, SOCIALIST, SECULAR, DEMOCRATIC, REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:-

JUSTICE, social, economic and political;

LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;

EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all

FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the nation;

IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.

 

Key Facts:

  • The Indian Constitution is the longest in the world
  • It has 448 articles, 12 schedules and 98 amendments. On the other hand, the American constitution is the shortest.
  • The Constituent Assembly had 284 members, out of which 15 were women. The Drafting Committee submitted the draft in November 1949, after which they took three more years to complete it
  • The Constitution of India was handwritten and calligraphed both in English and Hindi.
    • The Indian Constitution has taken various features from other constitutions.
    • The concepts of liberty, equality and fraternity were taken from the French Constitution.
    • The idea of 5 year plans was taken from the USSR and the concept of socio-economic rights was taken from Ireland.
  • Most importantly, the law on which the Supreme Court works was taken from Japan. There are many other concepts that have been borrowed from other countries.
  • The Indian Constitution came into force on January 26, 1950.
  • R. Ambedkar had a major role to play in the formulation of the Indian Constitution.

 

Classification of Fundamental rights

Originally Constitution provided for seven Fundamental Rights viz.

  • Right to equality (Article 14-18)
  • Right to freedom (Article 19-22)
  • Right against exploitation (Article 23-24)
  • Right to freedom of religion (Articles 25-28)
  • Cultural & educational rights (Articles 29-30)
  • Right to Property (Article 31)[Later It was removed !!]
  • Right to constitutional remedies (Article 32).

At present there are only six Fundamental rights, six fundamental rights are described below in brief.

Right to Equality
  • Article 14 :- Equality before law and equal protection of law
  • Article 15 :- Prohibition of discrimination on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
  • Article 16 :- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment
  • Article 17 :- End of untouchability
  • Article 18 :- Abolition of titles, Military and academic distinctions are, however, exempted
Right to Freedom
  • Article 19 :- It guarantees the citizens of India the following six fundamentals freedoms:-

1.    Freedom of Speech and Expression

2.    Freedom of Assembly

3.    Freedom of form Associations

4.    Freedom of Movement

5.    Freedom of Residence and Settlement

6.    Freedom of Profession, Occupation, Trade and Bussiness

  • Article 20 :- Protection in respect of conviction for offences
  • Article 21 :- Protection of life and personal liberty
  • Article 22 :- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases
Right Against Exploitation
  • Article 23 :- Traffic in human beings prohibited
  • Article 24 :- No child below the age of 14 can be employed
Right to freedom of Religion
  • Article 25 :- Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
  • Article 26 :- Freedom to manage religious affairs
  • Article 27 :- Prohibits taxes on religious grounds
  • Article 28 :- Freedom as to attendance at religious ceremonies in certain educational institutions
Cultural and Educational Rights
  • Article 29 :- Protection of interests of minorities
  • Article 30 :- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions
  • Article 31 :- Omitted by the 44th Amendment Act
Right to Constitutional Remedies
  • Article 32 :- The right to move the Supreme Court in case of their violation (called Soul and heart of the Constitution by BR Ambedkar)
  • Forms of Writ check
  • Habeas Corpus :- Equality before law and equal protection of law

Fundamental Duties in the Indian Constitution

  • Fundamental duties in Indian constitution are based on Japanese model. Ten duties in the the Indian Constitution were included in the Indian Constitution by 42nd amendment act, 1976 on the basis of Swarn Singh Committee. Eleventh duty was added by 86th Amendment act, 2002.
  • Fundamental rights and fundamental duties are co-relative. 11 Fundamental Duties of the citizens towards the State have been enumerated in Article 51-A in part-IV A of our Constitution.
  • There is no provision in the Indian constitution for direct enforcement of any of these duties nor any sanction to prevent their violation.
  • supreme Court pointed out the foundation of the “composite culture’ expressed in clause (f) of article 51-A in the Sanskrit language and literature.
list of fundamental duties for citizens for higher education for ugc net

list of fundamental duties for citizens 

APEX BODIES

  • The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution under Constitution of India/Part V – Chapter V/Sub-part 7B/Article 148, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government.
  • Auditors to the Nation , The current CAG of India is Shashi Kant Sharma,  who was appointed on 23 May 2013. He is the 12th CAG of India.
  • The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is the head of the judiciary of India and the Supreme Court of India.
    • As head of the supreme court, the chief justice is responsible for the allocation of cases and appointment of constitutional benches which deal with important matters of law.
    • The present CJI is Justice T. S. Thakur, and is the 43rd CJI since January 1950
  • UNION PUBLIC SERVICE COMMISSION
    • Under Article 320 of the Constitution of India, the Commission is, inter-alia, required to be consulted on all matters relating to recruitment to civil services and posts. The functions of the Commission under Article 320 of the Constitution are:

      1. Conduct examinations for appointment to the services of the Union.
      2. Direct recruitment by selection through interviews.
      3. Appointment of officers on promotion / deputation / absorption.
      4. Framing and amendment of Recruitment Rules for various services and posts under the Government.
      5. Disciplinary cases relating to different Civil Services.
      6. Advising the Government on any matter referred to the Commission by the President of India.
    • Deepak Gupta a retired IAS officer of Jharkhand cadre  is the Current chairman of the commission.
  • Election Commission of India
    • The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes to Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha, state legislatures, and the offices of the President and Vice President in India.
    • General Election System (GENESYS) is the software used for capturing data from the CEO offices and district centers all over India during Elections.
    • Dr. Nasim Zaidi, assumed charge as 20th Chief Election Commissioner of India on 19.04.15

Summary :

So far we have covered following topic in next section of this article we will see other important apex bodies their working and ministries .

  • Introduction of Indian constitution
  • Articles in Our Constitution
  • Fundamental rights and duties
  • Apex bodies like election commission

In Next Section ,We will also get some basic details of state and rural administration which are important to us for UGC NET EXAM.

 

Leave a reply

About AdminNew

Sanjay Mishra Founding Director cum faculty at ugcnetpaper1.com, He has more than 5 years of rich teaching and research experience. He has helped thousands of career aspirants to realise their UGC NET goals. A trainer cum key note speaker of many UGC Programmes; he has conducted training sessions with many renowned institutes across the Delhi NCR.

Follow Me