Notes for UGC NET Exam Education Policy
What is the New Education Policy?
New education policy is a way to transform the Indian education system by 2040. Which was released on 29 July 2020 by the Ministry of Education after 34 years, before this National education policy was released in 1986.
Making of New Education Policy
The process of creating NEP 2020 started in 2015 by MHRD
- “Committee for Evolution of the New Education Policy” Late Shri T.S.R. Subramanian, was the chairmen of the committee. This committee submitted the report in May 2016.
- “Committee for the Draft National Education Policy” was another committee created under the chairmanship of Dr. K. Kasturirangan. The policy was submitted to the HRD Minister on 31 May 2019.
What’s the purpose of NEP 2020?
This National educational policy is released with the purpose to built the world’s best education system which is rooted in Indian cultural values to make India a global knowledge superpower.
What’s new in this Education Policy of 2020?
- Previous policies focused mainly on the matter of Access and Equity and the New Education Policy focusing on Access, Equity, Quality, Affordability, and Accountability.
- New Education Policy based on the principle of the following things:
- Flexibility for learners to choose subjects according to their talents and interests.
- Multi-disciplinary and holistic education
- Emphasis on conceptual understanding, creative and critical thinking, ethics and humans & constitutional values, and life skills.
- Regular formative assessment for learning
- Equity and inclusion
- Teachers and faculty as the heart of the learning process.
Feature of the New Education Policy
On School Education Level
Key Highlights –
Achieving 100% GRE In preschool through secondary school by 2035.
New school framework design (5+3+3+4):
In this school framework design –
- 5 years for Foundational Stage from the age of 3-8. It’s divided into two parts, first 3 years of Anganwadi +2 years for primary school grades 1 and 2.
- +3 years for Preparatory stage, will be covering ages 8-11 and grades from 3-5
- +3 years for the Middle stage Age range 11-14, Grades 6-8
- +4 years for the High School, Age range 14-18, Grades 9-12.
Medium of the instruction until at least 5th grade will be the Mother tongue. Teachers will be encouraged to use a bilingual approach, including bilingual teaching-learning materials, with those students whose home language may be different from the medium of instruction.
National textbooks with local content and flavor:
This may be accomplished by using high-quality textbook materials developed by NCERT in conjunction with the SCERTs; additional textbook materials would be funded by public-private partnerships
Transforming assessment for student development :
Assessment in our school system used to test rote memorization skills but now there will be a shift to test the higher-order skills, such as analysis, critical thinking, and conceptual clarity.
- It emphasizes on reforming existing system of entrance education to eliminate the need for undertaking coaching for ‘cracking’ the examination.
- All students will be allowed to take Board Exams on up to two occasions during any given school year, one main examination and one for improvement.
- Exams will be conducted to test the core capacities than months of coaching and memorization and students can choose any subject for their board depending on their individual interest.
- For this guidelines will be prepared by NCERT, in consultation with major stakeholders, such as Boards of Assessment (BoAs), National Assessment Centre for School Education (NACSE) etc., and teachers prepared, for a transformation in the assessment system by 2022-23 academic session, to align with the NCF 2020.
Support for students with special talents:
The NCERT and NCFTE will develop guidelines for the education of gifted children.
Continuous Professional Development (CPD):
In this teachers have to keep improving themselves to develop their teaching skills. Every year a teacher have to participate in 50 hours of CPD for having continuous development in their profession.
Professional standards for teachers:
A common guiding set of National Professional Standards for Teachers (NPST) will be developed by 2022, by the National Council for Teacher Education in consultation with NCERT and coordinated by the NCERT, SCERTs,
The standards would cover expectations of the role of the teacher at different levels of expertise and the competencies required for that rank.
Approach to teacher education:
By 2030, the minimum degree qualification for teaching will be a 4 -year integrated B.Ed. degree.
Two years B.Ed. Degree will also be offered by the same institutes. It will be intended for those who have obtained bachelor degree in particular subjects.
Equitable and Inclusive Education: Learning for All :
This will ensure that all the children of India have access to education, so that no child loses any opportunity to learn and excel because of the circumstances of birth or background.
In this free boarding facilities will be provided for those children who comes from disadvantaged family
Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalayas will be expanded to benefit girls from socio-economically disadvantaged backgrounds by providing them quality education up to 12 grade.
Stopping commercialization of education:
To ensure that children from underprivileged family background have access to quality education.
On Higher Education Level
Increasing Gross Enrolment Ratio to 50 percent by 2030 :
Growth will be in both public and private institutions. All the accredited institutions will have the option to run open distance learning and online programmes to increase the GER ( Gross Enrolment Ratio).
Towards a More Holistic Education:
To brought the concept of “Liberal Arts” back to Indian Education. This will help in developing individuals that possess capacities in the fields across the arts and vocational fields.
To restore the role of India as Vishwa Guru (World Teacher) it must be promoted as a international study destination providing premium education.
Motivated, Energised, and Capable Faculty :
The teacher-student ratio shall range from 1:10 to 1:20 depending on the programme. The teachers allow time for interaction with the students, conducting research, and other activities.
Faculty will be given the freedom to design their own curricular and pedagogical approaches within the approved framework, which includes textbook selections, assignments, and assessments.
Equity and Inclusion in Higher Education:
It should be the right of each and every individual to have access to high quality education. It should not be limited to the privileged section of the society.
In shaping the future of India teachers education will play a vital role. To achieve this purpose all Teacher Education Institute will be required to convert to multidisciplinary institutions by 2025 and offer the 4-year integrated teacher preparation programme.
In India less than 5% Indian workforce receives vocational education. Whereas this percentage is above 50% in other countries including USA (50%), Germany (76%) and South Korea (96%). It shows the need to provide vocational education in each and every institute in India.
- By 2025, at least 50% of learners through the school and higher education system shall have exposure to vocational education. This is in alignment with the Sustainable Development Goal 4.4
- Lok Vidya (knowledge developed in India) will be made accessible to students through integration into vocational education courses.
- The MoE(Ministry of Education) will constitute a National Committee for the Integration of Vocational Education (NCIVE)
This will be the integral part of the new education policy. Professional education includes , Agriculture, Law, Healthcare and technical education.
Effective Governance and Leadership for Higher Education Institutions:
It plays an important role in making the culture of merit and innovation in Higher Education Institutes. For this purpose there must be a Board of Governors (BoG) consisting of a group of highly qualified and dedicated people. This will also be responsible for meeting all regulatory guidelines authorized by the National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA).
Selection of the leaders of HEI will be done by the EEC (Eminent Expert Committee) constituted by the BoG.
National Assessment Centre:
There will be PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) self-assessment by students in addition to existing teachers’ evaluation sheet.
Multiple Exit Option While Pursuing Undergraduate Degree:
A student has the freedom to join and exit during his college degree period. If he or she exit after one year, will be given diploma and if completes two years will awarded with advanced diploma. To get degree they have to complete the tenure of their degree course.
Transforming the Regulatory System of Higher Education:
There are a lot of problems in the HE regulatory system and there is a need to have one common regulatory system for the entire education sector. And for this purpose National Higher Education Regulatory Authority (NHERA), will be set up.
There will also be General Education Council (GEC) to frame expected learning outcomes for higher education programmes.
There will also be other professional standard setting bodies ICAR, VCI and NCTE.
There will be Higher Education Grants Commission (HEGC) for the funding and financing of higher education
How will be this policy Implemented?
To make it happen there will be Established Apex Advisory body for Indian Education Services.
RSA (Rashtriya Shiksha Abhiyan) is an apex advisory body whose creation is recommended for elementary to university education.
- It will replace the Central Advisory Board of Education. RSA will be responsible for the implementing the NEP. The RSA will be chaired by the Minister of Education and shall consist of 30 members, 2/3rd of whom shall be eminent educationists, researchers, and leading professionals from various fields.
- The RSA will have a Permanent Secretariat of the Rashtriya Shiksha Aayog (PSRSA) that will be headed by an ED (Executive Director).
- The ED will have a five-year term of appointment, which will be renewable one time.
- Similar to the RSA, a Rajya Shiksha Aayog (RjSA) may be constituted in each State, chaired by the Education Minister
- 6% of the Indian GDP will be spent on education. Equal amount was recommended to spent on education by the previous Education policy of 1986. But the current expenditure of the education of India is around 4%.
Himachal Pradesh has become the first state to implement the New Education Policy.