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Logical Reasoning Study Material for UGC NET JRF[Updated]

Statement and Argument - Structure of Statement, Study notes for NET exam

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 (Logical Reasoning Study Material for UGC NET JRF Based on Updated Syllabus 2019)

Logical Reasoning Syllabus! – NET Syllabus needs your attention, and it ’s super important as sometimes Questions were asked from a mixture of topics based on below Below Board Categories!

UGC NET Syllabus of Logical Reasoning

  • Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.(Covered in this article )
  • Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.
  • Analogies.
  • Venn diagram: Simple and multiple use for establishing validity of arguments.
  • Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.
  • Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana(Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).
  • Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation),Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).

Logical Reasoning Study Material

Structuring an Argument

In this section, we will look at the structure of an argument

“I see what your premises are,” says the philosopher, “and I see your conclusion. But I just don’t see how you get there. I don’t see the argument.”

What is an argument?

– Basically, an argument is a claim defended with reasons. It is composed of a group of statements with one or more statements (premises) supporting another statement (conclusion).

  • An argument is an act of presenting reasons to support an individual’s position or point of view.
  • It is not quarrel or dispute. Or simply, as Bassham’s definition of an argument: A claim defended with reasons.

Arguments are the basis of persuasive communication. They are combinations of statements made that are intended to change the minds of other people.

All arguments have structure, which can be either deliberately designed or may be discovered through analysis.

At its simplest, an argument has premises and a conclusion.

Main components in an argument. (a) Premises, (b) Conclusion:

 A simple argument must have a conclusion and at least two premises.
 Premises or propositions are statements that directly support the conclusion.
 A conclusion is what an author or an individual wants me to believe, accept or do.

Premise
A premise (or premiss) of an argument is something that is put forward as a truth, but which is not proven. Although it is not proven, it is assumed to be true (although how universally accepted this truth is may be another matter).

It is hot in here.

This is a beautiful car.

The people of this town are angry.

If you want to attack another person’s argument, you can challenge the truth of their premises. If you are making an argument, you should be ready to defend any of your own premises.

The more complex the premise, the more opportunity there is to challenge it, so if you expect a challenge, keep your premises both short and non-controversial.

As premises are the building blocks of the argument, there may well be two or more premises in any argument.

Conclusion
The conclusion (or claim) is the statement with which you want the other person to agree. It is drawn from the premises of the argument, of which there may be many.

We need to get out.

You should buy this car.

The new housing should be sited elsewhere.

A useful way of spotting a conclusion is that it may well be a statement of necessity, saying what must or should happen. It may well be framed to persuade the other person to do something or make some decision.

Inference

– Between the conclusion and the premises are further statements which translate the premises into the conclusion. This is the reasoning process, and in a formal argument uses careful logic (in informal arguments, emotional reasoning and assumptive leaps may well be used).

A particular aspect of the logical argument is that inferential statements have true-false qualities — that is, they are either true or false and nothing in between. Thus a sentence can contain many statements.

  • If we stay here, we will not only get uncomfortable, we will also start to smell.
  • There are other people interested in this car who will be here later.
  • If we don’t do something, the peasants will revolt.

Inferential arguments seek to prove. Thus commands, explanations and other statements may not directly add to the inference, although they may be a useful component of persuasion.

  • Look at this. (command)
  • The people are angry because we did not listen to them. (explanation)
  • I hate it when cars don’t start. (emotion)

Implicit conclusion & implicit premise:

– An implicit conclusion is when the conclusion is not stated outright and the arguer assumes that you will know it.
– An implicit premise is when the premise is not stated outright and the arguer assumes that you will know it.

On the basis of the above fact generally, three types of Question were asked in UGC NET exam in logical reasoning section –

  • Statement & Assumption Test 
  • Statement & Argument Test 
  • Statement & Inference Test 

Statement & Assumption Test 

Paper Pattern –  Questions are givens with the statement and you need to identify which of assumption is implicit

How to solve – 

In each question below is given a statement followed by two assumptions numbered I and II. You have to consider the statement and the following assumptions and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement.

Give answer

  • (A) If only assumption I is implicit
  • (B) If only assumption II is implicit
  • (C) If either I or II is implicit
  • (D) If neither I nor II is implicit
  • (E) If both I and II are implicit.

Statement:

The GOI  has decided to pay compensation to the tune of Rs. 10  lakh to the family members of those who are killed in major railway accidents.

Assumptions:

The government has enough funds to meet the expenses due to compensation.
There may be a reduction in incidents of railway accidents in near future.

  1. (A) If the only assumption I is implicit
  2. (B) If only assumption II is implicit
  3. (C) If either I or II is implicit
  4. (D) If neither I nor II is implicit
  5. (E) If both I and II are implicit.

Heads up! These type of Question are commonly asked you need to give attention to details. You might not able to identify that given assumption is implicit or not in the first few attempts however one you practise more questions based on the same pattern you will be able to identify them.

There is no shortcut to solving these problems.

If you consider the statement given that Gov of India has decided to pay 10 lakh compensation for railway accidents that means it must have been discussed in minister councils and subsequently rules has been provisioned after considering the amount that might need to allocate for this fund.

Means- The government has enough funds to meet the expenses due to compensation.

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However, The no of train incidents are unpredictable and this cant guarantee that there will be a reduction in incidents of railway accidents in near future.

Hence – only assumption I is implicit

Statement & Argument Test

Paper Pattern –  Questions are givens with the statement and you need to identify which of  argument is strong & week

How to solve – 

Each question given below consists of a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which is a ‘weak’ argument.

Give answer:

* (A) If only argument I is strong

* (B) If only argument II is strong

* (C) If either I or II is strong

* (D) If neither I nor II is strong and

* (E) If both I and II are strong.

Usually, in these questions, a statement is given which is followed by two arguments. An individual is required to differentiate between the strong and weak arguments.

You will see many different types of questions in this section. Usually, confusing questions will be asked. The arguments that will be provided will generally be contrary to each other.

You have to choose the strong argument which satisfies the Statement.

  • Strong Arguments may contain the universal truth, decisions taken by the Government etc.,
  • Weak Arguments may contain simple logic, superfluous and ambiguous.

Example 1- 

Statement:

Should taxes on colour television be further increased?

Arguments:

  • Yes, Colour television is a luxury item and only rich people buy them.
  • No, Televisions are bought by the poor too.
  1. Only argument I is strong
  2. Only argument II is strong
  3. Either I or II is strong
  4. Neither I nor II is strong
  5. Both I and II are strong

Answer: Option 4 

Explanation:

Clearly, taxes on an item cannot be increased or decreased on the basis of the financial position of the people who buy it. So, both arguments I and II do not hold strong.

Example 2- 

Statement:

Should India become a permanent member of UN’s Security Council?

Arguments:

  • Yes. India has emerged as a country which loves peace and amity.
  • No. Let us first solve problems of our own people like poverty, malnutrition.
  1. Only argument I is strong
  2. Only argument II is strong
  3. Either I or II is strong
  4. Neither I nor II is strong
  5. Both I and II are strong

Answer: Option 1

Explanation:

A peace-loving nation like India can well join an international forum which seeks to bring different nations on friendly terms with each other. So, the argument I hold strong.

Argument II highlights a different aspect. The internal problems of a nation should not debar it from strengthening international ties. So, argument II is vague.

Statement & Inference Test 

Paper Pattern –  Questions are givens with the statement and you need to identify which of inference/Conclusion is correct.

How to solve – 

In each question below is given a statement followed by two conclusions numbered I and II. You have to assume everything in the statement to be true, then consider the two conclusions together and decide which of them logically follows beyond a reasonable doubt from the information given in the statement.

Give answer:

(A) If only conclusion I follows
(B) If only conclusion II follows
(C) If either I or II follows
(D) If neither I nor II follows and
(E) If both I and II follow

Statements:

The government has spoiled many top ranking financial institutions by appointing bureaucrats as Directors of these institutions.

Conclusions:

  • The government should appoint Directors of the financial institutes taking into consideration the expertise of the person in the area of finance.
  • The Director of the financial institutions should have expertise commensurate with the financial work carried out by the institute.

A. Only conclusion I follows
B. Only conclusion II follows
C. Either I or II follows
D. Neither I nor II follows
E. Both I and II follow

Answer: Option E

Explanation:

According to the statement, Government has spoiled financial institutions by the appointing bureaucrats as Directors. This means that only those persons should be appointed as Directors who are experts in finance and are acquainted with the financial work of the institute. So, both I and II follow.

Statement:

Should an organization like UNO be dissolved?

Arguments:

  • Yes. With cold war coming to an end, such organizations have no role to play
  • No, In the absence of such organizations there may be a world war.

A. Only argument I is strong
B. Only argument II is strong
C. Either I or II is strong
D. Neither I nor II is strong
E. Both I and II are strong

Answer: Option B

Explanation:

An organization like UNO is meant to maintain peace all over and will always serve to prevent conflicts between countries. So, its role never ends. So, the argument I do not hold. Also, lack of such an organization may in future lead to increased mutual conflicts and international wars, on account of lack of a common platform for mutual discussions. So, argument II holds.

Reference Study materials – 

Understanding the Structure of Argument is covered in this blog article – Other topics will be covered in subsequent articles. Stay tune stay posted!

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