Register Now


Lost Password

Lost your password? Please enter your email address. You will receive a link and will create a new password via email.


Register Now

Dear User, There is some technical issue going on due to which Single Sign in Function Not working with Online Portal of TEST EXAM. You can separately register on online test portal and continue to attempt test. Sorry for inconvenience caused

Important Study Material  for Communication Part-2

Important Study Material for Communication Part-2

In the  Important Study Material for Communication  we have  cover the  following most important topics of Communication

  • Introduction to Communication
  • Various definition
  • Process of communication
  • Forms and types of communication

Our Objective of This part to understand

  • Theories and models of communication
  • Barriers to Communication
  • Organizational communication
  • Formal communication channels and network Pro and Cons
  • Organizational Communication channel network and Pro and Cons
  • Theories and models of communication

Theories and models of communication

There are different ways to understand the principles and processes that define communication. The convenient and easy ways from these is through models, as they act as a descriptive tools to approximate things, which otherwise would have trouble seeing, imagining or describing.


The models of communication :

  • One way communication process: Linear model
  • Two way process
  • Shannon Weaver model of communication
  • Murphy’s model of Communication
  • Berlo’s model of Communication
  • Thill and Bovee’s Model

Over the years, numerous models have been offered as representations of what is involved when human communicate. Different scholars have put forward different models of communication, main among them are: –

Shannon- Weaver Model

In the year 1949 Cloude Shannon, an electrical engineer and Warren Weaver propounded a mathematical model of communication. This model particularly explains electronic communication in a simple linear way which is easily understandable.



a). Information Source: – It is the beginning of the process. It represents some purpose on the part of sender.

b). Message: – It is the information passing between sender and receiver in the communication process.

c). Transmitter: – The sender of message is an encoded form is known as transmitter.

d). Noise Source: – The model recognizes the potential of noise in distorting the message while transfer through channel.

e). Reception: – He is the person to whom information is send. He decodes the information.

f). Destination: – It is the end of the communication process.

Murphy’s Model:

Different Communication models,Murphy model of Communication for UGC NET

Different Communication models,Murphy model of Communication for UGC NET

This communication process model is propounded by three writers. According to this model; there are six components of communication process : –

a). Context: – Context is a broad field that includes country, culture, organization, internal & external cause of action and every message weather oral or written begins with context.

b). Sender-Encoder: – The second- encoder used symbols, usually words, to express the message and create desired response.

c). Message: – The message is the core idea the sender wishes to communicate. It consists of both verbal and non-verbal symbols.

d). Medium: – It is the channel through which a message is communicated. It can be printed word, e – mail, sound or gesture.

e). Receiver- decoder: – The receiver/listener is the person who receives the message and decodes it.

f). Feedback: – It can be oral or written. It can be an action such as receiving an ordered item. Sender needs feedback in order to determine the success or failure of the communication.

Thill and Bovee Model: –

According to Thill and Bovee communication model, business communication is more than a single act. It is a chain of events consisting of five phases linking sender and receiver.

a). Idea: – The sender has an idea. In the process of conceiving an idea about the real world, the sender leaves out many things but assumes some things. This means idea in the mind of sender is a simplification of the real world.

b). Message: – The idea in the mind of sender is transformed into words and thus becomes a message. The message may be expressed in many ways.

c). Message is transmitted: – The 3rd step in the process is physical transmission of the message through verbal or non-verbal channel, from sender to receiver.

d). Receiver gets Message: – For communication to occur, the receiver has to get the message, and understand the message and store the message mentally.

e). Feedback: – The receiver reacts after receiving the message and sends feedback. Feedback is a key element in the communication process because it enables the sender to evaluate the effectiveness of the message. Then the process is repeated until both parties have finished expressing themselves.



Barriers to Communication

Communication is not always successful. Certain barriers in communication affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness of the message. These barriers hamper the growth of communication and relegate it to the status of a conversation where feedback is not expected.

If either the speaker or the listener has problems in adjusting his frequency with the co-interactants, barriers would automatically be erected.

Several things can prevent the message from reaching the intended recipient or from having the desired effect on the recipient. There may be some fault in the communication system which may prevent the message from reaching. Some of these defects are in the mechanical devices used for transmitting, that is, the medium; some are in the tools we use for communicating, that is, language or other symbols used for encoding; Some are related to the sender or the receiver.

As the barriers to communication influence the major variables in the communication process, they may be categorized on various bases. Though the list of Barriers is exhaustive and there are many ways in which the Barriers can be categorized, one of the oldest categorization of barriers is stated below:

  1. Semantic barriers: Different people assign different meanings to one specific message. This is due to the problems with meaning, significance, and the sending and reception of the meaning and content of the massage.
  1. Organizational barriers: This type of barrier develops due to the problems with physical distance between members with respect to their functional specialization of tasks, power, authority and status relationship, values held, and ownership of information.
  2. Interpersonal barriers: These barriers also develop in the process of communication. They are based upon the relationships, values held, and attitudes of the participants in the process of communication.
  3. Individual barriers: These are also called psycho-sociological barriers. The problem of this barrier arises due to differences in individual competencies to think and act, which would include physical aliments or handicaps. It is also because of individual skills in receiving and transmitting information, which would include poor listening and improper reading skills and adverse psychological conditions.
  4. Cross Cultural (geographic) barriers: Culture is a shared set of values and attributes of a group. The communication barriers are also seen because of time, geographic locations, and the effects of time upon reception of the message and other cross cultural factors.
  5. Physical Barriers/Channel and media barriers: The effectiveness and accuracy of communication is also affected by the physical barriers like distance, noise or channel and the media used in the process. In this category, problems that confront the media used in the process. In this category, problems that confront the issue of how best to communicate a message are included. (For example, it is best to transmit a massage face to face rather than in writing).
  6. Technological barriers: They are barriers which arise due to technological advancements in the field of communication. Technology generates lot of information, which is beyond the capacity of the recipient. Further, the media advancements on account of technological process increase the barriers. The ideas and massage have to reach from the transmitter to receive in the same sense. If it does not happen, it is on account of barriers in communication.

Overcoming Communication Barriers: –

Following points should be kept in mind in order to overcome different communication barriers: –

1). Constructive environment should be created for expression of ideas.

2). Proper communication channel should be used to transfer idea/information.

3). One should try to maintain a positive attitude while communicating by being open minded.

4). One should use direct, simple language and avoid words that have more than one meaning.

5). Free flow of information should take place between different levels both vertically and horizontally.

6). One should try to understand the idea/information through proper listening before giving feedback.


Simplest model of communication reflects the work of Shannon and Weaver.  Model consists of a sender, a message, a channel where the message travels, noise or interference and a receiver. Often, communicators blame the audience for not accepting a message, but it is often that the sender, encoding process or channels chosen were not applied correctly.

Without feedback, we don’t know if the receiver received or understood our message.

Design and deliver message so that it gets the attention of intended audience.  Relate to common experiences between the source and destination.  Offer a way to meet personality needs appropriate to the group situation the receiver is in at the time you want that receiver to respond.

References :

Study Material for Communication


Please feel free to give us feedback or write us at info[at] .In the next Part We will cover


  • Organizational communication
  • Formal communication channels and network Pro and Cons
  • Organizational Communication channel network and Pro and Cons
  • Theories and models of communication


Leave a reply

About AdminNew

Sanjay Mishra Founding Director cum faculty at, He has more than 5 years of rich teaching and research experience. He has helped thousands of career aspirants to realise their UGC NET goals. A trainer cum key note speaker of many UGC Programmes; he has conducted training sessions with many renowned institutes across the Delhi NCR.

Follow Me