In this part we will cover Various Steps involved in research process . So far, we have seen different types of research methods and methodology along with key differences in part 1 of this series. . The important take away from the first part is definition of research and difference.
Various Steps involved in research process
Research process consists of a series of steps or actions required for effectively conducting research. The following are the steps that provide useful procedural guidelines regarding the conduct of research.
PHASE I RESEARCH PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
STEP 1: Formulate a Research problem
The first step in research is formulating a research problem, at this step your goal should be clear that what you intend to achieve out of research. All other step in research process will be influenced by research problem identification. So its extremely important that you should consider time,cost,expertise you have in field of research you have chosen. Some time you should also consider your guide/Supervisor expertise knowledge.
PHASE II PLANNING FOR RESEARCH STUDY AND INSTRUMENT
STEP 2: Conceptualizing a research design
Once research problem is identified the next step is to identify the knowledge gap , selection of appropriate methods, sampling strategy and time frame. A faulty design may lead to misleading findings and therefore its important to ensure that your selection of research design permits the accurate prediction of outcome under given set of limitation.
While selecting particular research design you must have strong reasons and justification for your selection; and you should be aware of its strengths, weaknesses and limitations.
STEP 3: Constructing an instrument for data collection
Construction of an instrument for research total depends upon how you are going to collect data and various method around it. All what is needed is what sort of information is required for qualitative and quantitative study . This first practical step in research study also require some validation and reliability for research instrument you have constructed.
STEP 4: Selecting a sampling design
Sampling design selection is another crucial step in research process ,the research result will largely depends on category of sampling design you have chosen for your research study. The three categories of sampling design random/probability sampling designs, non-random/non-probability sampling designs and ‘mixed’ sampling design will affect you strategies and you must be able to select most appropriate for your study by considering the strength and weaknesses of each along with their use case.
STEP 5 :Writing a research proposal
Having done all the preparatory work, the next step is to put everything together in a way that provides adequate information about your research study, for your research supervisor and others.
Universities and other institutions may have differing requirements regarding the style and content of a research proposal, but the majority of institutions would require most of what is set out here.This also vary within an institution, from discipline to discipline or from supervisor to supervisor.
Therefore it should contain the following information about your study
- objectives of the study;
- list of hypotheses if you are testing any;
- study design you are proposing to use;
- the research instrument(s) you are planning to use;
- information on sample size and sampling design;
- information on data processing procedures;
- the study’s problems and limitations; and
- the proposed time-frame.
PHASE III CONDUCTING RESEARCH AND RESEARCH REPORT
STEP 6: Collecting data
As a part of the research design, you decided upon the procedure you wanted to adopt to collect your data. In this phase you actually collect the data using below techniques based on your selected sample and study design.
- Focused Group Discussion
Many methods could be used some time together to gather required information.
Step 7 : Processing and displaying data
Processing of data you have collected through various methods requires different ways of analysis; analysis will be quantitative for descriptive study. If you want quantitative analysis, it is also necessary to decide upon the type of analysis required (i.e. frequency distribution, cross-tabulations or other statistical procedures, such as regression analysis, factor analysis and analysis of variance) and how it should be presented
Step 8: Writing a research report
Universities and other institutions may have differing requirements regarding the style and content of a research proposal but there are two broad categories of reports:
Writing the report is the last and, for many, the most difficult step of the research process. This report informs the world what you have done, what you have discovered and what conclusions you have drawn from your findings. If you are clear about the whole process. Your report should be written in an academic style and be divided into
different chapters and/or sections based upon the main themes of your study.
We have provided the eight steps to cover the spectrum of research endeavor from problem identification to writing research report. These steps are in logical sequence and detailing of each steps and method is beyond scope of series.
This is not theoretical lecture series where we will cover every details of chapter those who are looking for detailed study of this topic can reference some good text book.
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RESEARCH METHOD a step-by-step guide for beginner by Ranjit Kumar