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Study Material For UGC NET Paper 1- Communication Introduction

Study Material Notes UGC NET Communication Paper 1| New Syllabus

Key notes & pointers based on important topics of UGC NET syllabus based on Unit IV Communication Latest Syllabus 2019

 Important Study Material  Notes Ugc net Communication paper 1

(Communication: Meaning, types and characteristics of communication.)

UGC NET Study materiel on Communication Topics for NET Exam has been covered entirely based on topics provided in the syllabus. In the 5 Parts series which can be referred using below, the first four parts contain important short study notes useful for your paper 1 preparation while the 5th part contains solved question papers of last almost 12 years MCQ Question. 

Please go through them in a sequential fashion to understand them in better ways.  

Unit-IV Communication(Based on Latest UGC NET Syllabus)

As you all know there will be 5 Question based on Communication in General Paper 1 exam. This has been also observed that Question was mostly asked from the definition of communication, information barriers of communication, communication models and theories and informal and formal communication differences.

In this blog we will cover the most Important key Notes Communication as below:

  • Introduction to Communication
  • Various definition
  • Process of communication
  • Forms and types of communication
  • types and characteristics of communication.


After studying this blog, you should be able to cover –

  • Understand the meaning and definition of communication.
  • Be able to know the objectives of communication Know the relevance of communication in an organisation and in management
  • Understand the types and characteristics of communication.

Introduction to communication

Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people” All communication is essentially sharing of information or some message. Communication is the most important of our social activities.

We can classify communication as interpersonal, intrapersonal, group communication, Metacommunication, upward, downward, lateral, diagonal, formal, informal, oral, written or non-verbal communication.

Understand the functions and importance of communication
Understand the functions and importance of communication

In terms of Business “Communication is an important requirement of every business. A businessman participates in the process of communication in many ways. For instance, he informs the consumer about his product, he motivates them to do the work or collects information about the progress of business etc.”

Three Simple Definitions

  • Communication means sharing of information
  • Communication is the giving and receiving of messages
  • Communication is the transfer of information from one or more people to one or more other people

Meaning of Communication

The term communication is derived from the latin word “communis” or “communicare” which means to make common. Thus communication means to make common facts, information’s, thoughts and requirements. Communication, therefore, is the exchange of thoughts, message, information etc. by way of speech, signal or in writing.

Communication is a two-way process and works well with feedback, this helps to confirm that the intended message has been successful.

Scholar Definition of communication

In order to understand further, many scholars have defined the term such as

“Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”

– Allen Louis

Communication has been defined “As the transfer of information from one person to another whether or not it elicits confidence.”

– Koontz and O’ Donell

“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.” – George Terry

“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”.

–  By Peter Little

 “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

– By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.

There are many other comprehensive definitions exist and touches all the aspects of the communication process in general terms such as business communication, Organizational communication etc.

“Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions, which will accomplish organizational goals.”

Process of Communication

Communication is effective when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received successfully and understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct components:

UGC NET Note for Communication Process
UGC NET Note for Communication Process

Communication begins with an impulse (or motivation) to pass on a message made up of bits of information. In the process of encoding, units of information are selected and organized for transmission. Input is the sum of experiences that build up in the human brain or computer.

The output is the encoded message transmitted by the information source (an individual person or group of people). The interpretation of the message is referred to as decoding.

Feedback is the response or message that the recipient (decoder) returns to the sender (encoder).

  • The sender has an idea
  • Sender encodes the idea
  • The sender transmits the message through a medium
  • The receiver gets the message
  • The receiver decodes the message
  • Receiver sends feedback

Feedback in the communication process is the response that gives us some indication of how effectively we communicate. It is the gauge of efficiency in communication

Types and Characteristics of communication

Based on whom the message is addressed

We classify communication according to the number of persons (receivers) to whom the message is addressed:

  • Intrapersonal Communication:
    • It is talking to oneself in one’s own mind. Examples are soliloquies or asides in dramatic works.
  • Interpersonal Communication:
    • It is the exchange of messages between two persons. For example, a conversation, dialogue, or an interview in which two persons interact (others may also be present as the audience). An author communicates interpersonally with his reader, who is always present as a silent audience in the author’s mind while he writes. A letter too is an example of interpersonal communication between the writer and the person to whom it is written.
  • Group Communication:
    • It can be among small or large groups, like an organization, club or classroom, in which all individuals retain their individual identity.
  • Mass Communication:
    • It occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people, for example, by newspaper, radio, or television. In this process, each person becomes a faceless individual with almost no opportunity for personal response or feedback.

Based On the basis of the medium employed

  • Verbal Communication:
    • It means communicating with words, written or spoken. Verbal communication consists of speaking, listening, writing, reading, and thinking. It may further be classified as Oral or Written Communication.
  • Non-verbal communication:
    • It includes using of pictures, signs, gestures, and facial expressions for exchanging information between persons. It is done through sign language, action language, or object language. Non-verbal communication flows through all acts of speaking or writing. It is a wordless message conveyed through gestures (sign), movements (action language), and object language (pictures/clothes) and so on. Further non-verbal communication can be identified by personal space (proxemics), sense of smell (olfactics) and time (chronemics).
  • Meta Communication:
    • Here the speaker’s choice of words unintentionally communicates something more than what the actual words state. For example, a flattering remark like “I’ve never seen you so smartly dressed” could also mean that the regular attire of the listener needed improvement.
  • Formal Communication:
    • A formal channel of communication can be defined as a means of communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization. The communication flows through formal channels, that is, officially recognized positions along the line in the organization. This ensures that the information flows orderly, timely, and accurately. Any information, decision, memo, reminder etc. will follow this path.
  • Informal Communication:
    • Side by side with the formal channel of communication every organization has an equally effective channel of communication that is the informal channel. It is not officially sanctioned, and quite often it is even discouraged or looked down upon.
    • But, then, it is very much there and has been given the name ‘grapevine’ precisely because it runs in all directions-horizontal, vertical, diagonal. As the management experts put it, “it flows around water coolers, down hallways, through lunch rooms, and wherever people get together in groups”.
  • Downward Communication:
    • The Communication that flows from Top to Bottom is known as downward communication. Any organization has an inbuilt hierarchical system, and in that, in the first instance, communication invariably flows downwards.
  • Upward Communication:
    • The Communication that flows from bottom to top, which is from a lower hierarchical level to a higher level, is called Upward Communication. The main function of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. It is just the reverse of the previous dimension
  • Lateral Communication:
    • When communication takes place between two or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person or those who are working on the same level, it is called lateral or horizontal communication. A good example of this kind of communication is between functional managers. It is necessary for the reviewing of the activities assigned to various subordinates having identical positions
  • Diagonal Communication:
    • Diagonal or Crosswise communication includes the flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships.
    • As an example, the Communication between the Training Supervisor and Marketing Manager, regarding the Training of a few employees of the Marketing Department, is Diagonal Communication. This kind of communication is used to speed up information flow, to improve understanding, and to coordinate efforts for the achievement of organizational objectives.

Characteristics of communication

From the analysis of above-mentioned definitions we get the following essential features of communication:

1. It Involves at Least Two Persons:

Communication involves at least two persons, a sender and a receiver. The sender is called communicator and the receiver of the message is known as communicate. A person who speaks, writes or issues some instructions is the sender and the person for whom the communication is meant or who receives the message is the receiver or communicates.

2. The message is a Must:

A message is the subject matter of communication. e.g., the contents of the letter or speech, order, instructions or suggestions. Communication must convey some message. If there is no message there is no communication.

3. Communication Maybe Written, Oral or Gestural:

Communication is generally understood as spoken or written words. But in reality, it is more than that. It includes everything that may be used to convey meanings from one person to another, e.g., movement of lips or the wink of an eye or the wave of hands may convey more meaning than even written or spoken words.

4. Communication is a Two Way Process:

It involves both information and understanding. Communication is not complete unless the receiver has understood the message properly and his reaction or response is known to the sender. Understanding is the end result of communication but it does not imply agreement.

5. Its Primary Purpose is to Motivate a Response:

The primary purpose of communication is to motivate response or influence human behaviour. There is no doubt that motivation comes from within but communicator can also motivate people by good drafting of the message, proper timing of communication, etc. To create understanding, communication should be relevant to the situation. It must always be remembered that communication is a means of motivating and not an end itself.

6. Communication may be Formal or Informal:

Formal communication follows the formal channels provided in the organisation structure. For example, the Managing Director communicates with the departmental heads, says Finance Manager, finance manager communicates to the deputy finance manager, the deputy finance manager with accounts officer and so on.

In simple words, in informal communication, there is no direct communication between the Managing Director and the accounts clerks. Informal communication flows from informal channels of communication which are not provided in the organisation structure. These channels develop among members because of personal contacts through working with each other.

7. It Flows Up and Down and also from Side to Side:

Communication flows downward from a superior to subordinate and upward from subordinate to a superior. It also flows between two or more persons operating at the same level of authority.

8. It is an Integral Part of the Process of Exchange:

It refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions and knowledge and information are between two or more persons.

[Source – Characteristics of Communication ]


Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people” All communication is essentially sharing of information or some message. Communication is the most important of our social activities.

We can classify communication as interpersonal, interpersonal, group communication, Meta communication, upward, downward, lateral, diagonal, formal, informal, oral, written or non-verbal communication.

Reading, writing, speaking and listening are the four skills of communication The objective of communication may inform, persuade, to train, motivate, educate, to relate, reprimand, to rectify and so on.

Important Study Material for Communication(Study Notes Based on Latest UGC NET Syllabus)

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