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Study Material Notes UGC NET Communication Paper 1| New Syllabus

Key notes & pointers based on important topics of UGC NET syllabus based on Unit IV Communication Latest Syllabus 2019

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 Important Study Material  Notes Ugc net Communication paper 1

 

UGC NET Study materiel on Communication Topics for NET Exam has been covered entirely based on topics  provided in syllabus. In the 5 Parts series which can be referred using below , the first four parts contains important short study notes useful for your paper 1 preparation while the 5th part contains solved question papers of last almost 12 years MCQ Question. 

Please go through them in sequential fashion to understand them in better ways.  

Unit-IV Communication(Based on Latest UGC NET Syllabus)

As you all know there will be 5 Question based on Communication in General Paper 1 exam. This has been also observed that Question was mostly asked from the definition of communication, information barriers of communication, communication models and theories and informal and formal communication differences.

In this blog we will cover the most Important key Notes Communication as below:

  • Introduction to Communication
  • Various definition
  • Process of communication
  • Forms and types of communication
  • types and characteristics of communication.

Objective 

After studying this blog, you should be able to cover –

  • Understand the meaning and definition of communication.
  • Be able to know the objectives of communication Know the relevance of communication in an organisation and in management
  • Understand the types and characteristics of communication.

Introduction to communication

Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people” All communication is essentially sharing of information or some message. Communication is the most important of our social activities.

We can classify communication as interpersonal, intrapersonal, group communication, Metacommunication, upward, downward, lateral, diagonal, formal, informal, oral, written or non-verbal communication.

Understand the functions and importance of communication
Understand the functions and importance of communication

In terms of Business “Communication is an important requirement of every business. A businessman participates in the process of communication in many ways. For instance, he informs the consumer about his product, he motivates them to do the work or collects information about the progress of business etc.”

Three Simple Definitions

  • Communication means sharing of information
  • Communication is the giving and receiving of messages
  • Communication is the transfer of information from one or more people to one or more other people

Meaning of Communication

The term communication is derived from the latin word “communis” or “communicare” which means to make common. Thus communication means to make common facts, information’s, thoughts and requirements. Communication therefore is the exchange of thoughts, message, information etc. by way of speech, signal or in writing.

Communication is a two-way process and works well with feedback, this helps to confirm that intended message has been successful.

Scholar Definition of communication

In order to understand further, many scholars have defined the term such as

“Communication is the sum of all things, one person does when he wants to create understanding in the minds of another. It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling, listening and understanding.”

– Allen Louis

Communication has been defined “As the transfer of information from one person to another whether or not it elicits confidence.”

– Koontz and O’ Donell

“Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons.” – George Terry

“Communication is the process by which information is transmitted between individuals and/or organization so that an understanding response results”.

–  By Peter Little

 “Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions or emotions by two or more persons”.

– By W.H. New man and C.F. summer Jr.

There are many other comprehensive definitions exist and touches all the aspects of the communication process in general terms such as business communication, Organizational communication etc.

“Administrative communication is a process which involves the transmission and accurate replication of ideas ensured by feedback for the purpose of eliciting actions, which will accomplish organizational goals.”

Process of Communication

Communication is effective when a concise and clear message is delivered well, received successfully and understand fully. The process of communication has the following distinct components:

UGC NET Note for Communication Process
UGC NET Note for Communication Process

 

Communication begins with an impulse (or motivation) to pass on a message made up of bits of information. In the process of encoding, units of information are selected and organized for transmission. Input is the sum of experiences that build up in the human brain or computer.

The output is the encoded message transmitted by the information source (an individual person or group of people). The interpretation of the message is referred to as decoding.

Feedback is the response or message that the recipient (decoder) returns to the sender (encoder).

  • The sender has an idea
  • Sender encodes the idea
  • The sender transmits the message through a medium
  • The receiver gets the message
  • The receiver decodes the message
  • Receiver sends feedback

Feedback in the communication process is the response that gives us some indication of how effectively we communicate. It is the gauge of efficiency in communication

Types and Characteristics of communication

Based on whom the message is addressed

We classify communication according to the number of persons (receivers) to whom the message is addressed:

  • Intrapersonal Communication:
    • It is talking to oneself in one’s own mind. Examples are soliloquies or asides in dramatic works.
  • Interpersonal Communication:
    • It is the exchange of messages between two persons. For example, a conversation, dialogue, or an interview in which two persons interact (others may also be present as the audience). An author communicates interpersonally with his reader, who is always present as a silent audience in the author’s mind while he writes. A letter too is an example of interpersonal communication between the writer and the person to whom it is written.
  • Group Communication:
    • It can be among small or large groups, like an organization, club or classroom, in which all individuals retain their individual identity.
  • Mass Communication:
    • It occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people, for example, by newspaper, radio, or television. In this process, each person becomes a faceless individual with almost no opportunity for personal response or feedback.

Based On the basis of the medium employed

  • Verbal Communication:
    • It means communicating with words, written or spoken. Verbal communication consists of speaking, listening, writing, reading, and thinking. It may further be classified as Oral or Written Communication.
  • Non-verbal communication:
    • It includes using of pictures, signs, gestures, and facial expressions for exchanging information between persons. It is done through sign language, action language, or object language. Non-verbal communication flows through all acts of speaking or writing. It is a wordless message conveyed through gestures (sign), movements (action language), and object language (pictures/clothes) and so on. Further non-verbal communication can be identified by personal space (proxemics), sense of smell (olfactics) and time (chronemics).
  • Meta Communication:
    • Here the speaker’s choice of words unintentionally communicates something more than what the actual words state. For example, a flattering remark like “I’ve never seen you so smartly dressed” could also mean that the regular attire of the listener needed improvement.
  • Formal Communication:
    • A formal channel of communication can be defined as a means of communication that is formally controlled by managers or people occupying positions in an organization. The communication flows through formal channels, that is, officially recognized positions along the line in the organization. This ensures that the information flows orderly, timely, and accurately. Any information, decision, memo, reminder etc. will follow this path.
  • Informal Communication:
    • Side by side with the formal channel of communication every organization has an equally effective channel of communication that is the informal channel. It is not officially sanctioned, and quite often it is even discouraged or looked down upon.
    • But, then, it is very much there and has been given the name ‘grapevine’ precisely because it runs in all directions-horizontal, vertical, diagonal. As the management experts put it, “it flows around water coolers, down hallways, through lunch rooms, and wherever people get together in groups”.
  • Downward Communication:
    • The Communication that flows from Top to Bottom is known as downward communication. Any organization has an inbuilt hierarchical system, and in that, in the first instance, communication invariably flows downwards.
  • Upward Communication:
    • The Communication that flows from bottom to top, which is from lower hierarchical level to higher level, is called Upward Communication. The main function of upward communication is to supply information to the upper levels about what is happening at the lower levels. It is just the reverse of the previous dimension
  • Lateral Communication:
    • When communication takes place between two or more persons who are subordinates working under the same person or those who are working on the same level, it is called lateral or horizontal communication. A good example of this kind of communication is that between functional managers. It is necessary for the reviewing of the activities assigned to various subordinates having identical positions
  • Diagonal Communication:
    • Diagonal or Crosswise communication includes the flow of information among persons at different levels who have no direct reporting relationships.
    • As an example, the Communication between the Training Supervisor and Marketing Manager, regarding the Training of a few employees of the Marketing Department, is Diagonal Communication. This kind of communication is used to speed up information flow, to improve understanding, and to coordinate efforts for the achievement of organizational objectives.

Characteristics of communication

From the analysis of above-mentioned definitions we get the following essential features of communication:

1. It Involves at Least Two Persons:

Communication involves at least two persons, a sender and a receiver. The sender is called communicator and the receiver of the message is known as communicate. A person who speaks, writes or issues some instructions is the sender and the person for whom the communication is meant or who receives the message is the receiver or communicates.

2. Message is a Must:

A message is the subject matter of communication. e.g., the contents of the letter or speech, order, instructions or the suggestions. A communication must convey some message. If there is no message there is no communication.

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3. Communication May be Written, Oral or Gestural:

Communication is generally understood as spoken or written words. But in reality, it is more than that. It includes everything that may be used to convey meanings from one person to another, e.g., movement of lips, or the wink of an eye or the wave of hands may convey more meaning than even written or spoken words.

4. Communication is a Two Way Process:

It involves both information and understanding. Communication is not complete unless the receiver has understood the message properly and his reaction or response is known to the sender. Understanding is the end result of communication but it does not imply agreement.

5. Its Primary Purpose is to Motivate a Response:

The primary purpose of communication is to motivate response or influence human behaviour. There is no doubt that motivation comes from within but communicator can also motivate people by good drafting of message, proper timing of communication, etc. To create understanding, communication should be relevant to the situation. It must always be remembered that communication is a means of motivating and not an end itself.

6. Communication may be Formal or Informal:

Formal communication follows the formal channels provided in the organisation structure. For example, the Managing Director communicates with the departmental heads, say Finance Manager, finance manager communicates to deputy finance manager, the deputy finance manager with accounts officer and so on.

In simple words, in informal communication, there is no direct communication between the Managing Director and the accounts clerks. Informal communication flows from informal channels of communication which are not provided in the organisation structure. These channels develop among members because of personal contacts through working with each other.

7. It Flows Up and Down and also from Side to Side:

Communication flows downward from a superior to subordinate and upward from subordinate to a superior. It also flows between two or more persons operating at the same level of authority.

8. It is an Integral Part of the Process of Exchange:

It refers to the exchange of ideas, feelings, emotions and knowledge and information’s between two or more persons.

[Source – Characteristics of Communication ]

Objectives/Purpose Of Communication

The objectives of communication are dynamic and ever-changing. Some of the common objectives of official communication are to get or give information, to ask for or give instructions or advice or suggestions, to make requests, to persuade other people to agree with us.

Sometimes, we communicate with the intention of complaining, or warning; but unfortunately, we do this angrily and get into arguments. If we learn to complain and warn in an acceptable and constructive manner, our serious intention can be conveyed quite effectively without damaging relationships.

In order to caution, counsel, clarify, apprise, evaluate, reprimand, organize and numerous such objectives, we make use of communication.

Evaluation Of Communication Effectiveness

Communication is not an end in itself; rather it is a means to attain other ends or goals. Hence, it has to be effective to be able to attain these goals or objectives. Communication effectiveness can be examined in relation to the following criteria:

  • Fidelity of Communication: the distortion free quality of a message is called fidelity. An effective person gets the message across to others with minimal possibilities of misunderstanding.
  • Economy: In an effective communication a minimum of energy time, symbols and cues are used to encode message without losing its fidelity and impact.
  • Congruence: An effective communication integrates both verbal and non-verbal cues.
  • Influence: The most important criterion of effectiveness is the influence that the communicator is able to exercise over the receiver of the communication. Influence means the communicator achieve the results he intended.
  • Relationship Building: effective communication contributes to the building of trust and a better relationship between the source and the target.

Seven C’s of Effective Communication

These are the Seven terms, starting with the letter C, which makes communication more understandable, valuable and effective.

Below are 7 C’s of effective communication which is applicable to both written as well as oral communication.

These are as follows:

  1. Completeness – The communication must be complete. It should convey all the facts required by the audience. The sender of the message must take into consideration the receiver’s mindset and convey the message accordingly. A complete communication has following features:
    • Complete communication develops and enhances the reputation of an organization.
    • Moreover, they are cost saving as no crucial information is missing and no additional cost is incurred in conveying the extra message if the communication is complete.
    • A complete communication always gives additional information wherever required. It leaves no questions in the mind of the receiver.
    • Complete communication helps in better decision-making by the audience/readers/receivers of the message as they get all desired and crucial information.
    • It persuades the audience.
  2. Conciseness – Conciseness means wordiness, i.e, communicating what you want to convey in least possible words without forgoing the other C’s of communication. Conciseness is a necessity for effective communication. Concise communication has following features:
    • It is both time-saving as well as cost-saving.
    • It underlines and highlights the main message as it avoids using excessive and needless words.
    • Concise communication provides short and essential message in limited words to the audience.
    • Concise message is more appealing and comprehensible to the audience.
    • Concise message is non-repetitive in nature.
  3. Consideration – Consideration implies “stepping into the shoes of others”. Effective communication must take the audience into consideration, i.e, the audience’s viewpoints, background, mindset, education level, etc. Make an attempt to envisage your audience, their requirements, emotions as well as problems. Ensure that the self-respect of the audience is maintained and their emotions are not at harm. Modify your words in a message to suit the audience’s needs while making your message complete. Features of considerate communication are as follows:
    • Emphasize on “you” approach.
    • Empathize with the audience and exhibit interest in the audience. This will stimulate a positive reaction from the audience.
    • Show optimism towards your audience. Emphasize on “what is possible” rather than “what is impossible”. Lay stress on positive words such as jovial, committed, thanks, warm, healthy, help, etc.
  4. Clarity – Clarity implies emphasizing on a specific message or goal at a time, rather than trying to achieve too much at once. Clarity in communication has following features:
    • It makes understanding easier.
    • Complete clarity of thoughts and ideas enhances the meaning of the message.
    • Clear message makes use of exact, appropriate and concrete words.
  5. Concreteness – Concrete communication implies being particular and clear rather than fuzzy and general. Concreteness strengthens the confidence. The concrete message has the following features:
    • It is supported by specific facts and figures.
    • It makes use of words that are clear and that build the reputation.
    • Concrete messages are not misinterpreted.
  6. Courtesy – Courtesy in message implies the message should show the sender’s expression as well as should respect the receiver. The sender of the message should be sincerely polite, judicious, reflective and enthusiastic. The courteous message has the following features:
    • Courtesy implies taking into consideration both viewpoints as well as feelings of the receiver of the message.
    • The courteous message is positive and focused at the audience.
    • It makes use of terms showing respect for the receiver of the message.
    • It is not at all biased.
  7. Correctness – Correctness in communication implies that there are no grammatical errors in communication. Correct communication has following features:
    • The message is exact, correct and well-timed.
    • If the communication is correct, it boosts up the confidence level.
    • The correct message has a greater impact on the audience/readers.
    • It checks for the precision and accurateness of facts and figures used in the message.
    • It makes use of appropriate and correct language in the message.

Awareness of these 7 C’s of communication makes you an effective communicator.

[Source –seven-cs-of-effective-communication ]

Four S’s of Communication

Four terms starting with letter S, which add to the value of the message in Communication

Shortness

“Brevity is the soul of wit,” it is said. The same can be said about communication.

If the message can be made brief, and verbosity did away with, then the transmission and comprehension of messages are going to be faster and more effective.

Flooding messages with high sounding words do not create an impact.

Many people harbor a misconception that they can actually impress the receiver if they carry on their expeditious travails.

Little do they realize how much they have lost as the receiver has spent a major chunk of his time in trying to decipher the actual meaning of the message.

Simplicity

Simplicity both in the usage of words and ideas reveals clarity in the thinking process.

It is normally a tendency that when an individual is himself confused that he tries to use equally confusing strategies to lead the receiver in a maze.

Reveal clarity in the thinking process by using simple terminology and equally simple concepts.

Strength

The strength of a message emanates from the credibility of the sender.

If the sender himself believes in a message that he is about to transmit, there is bound to be strength and conviction in whatever he tries to state.

Halfhearted statements or utterances that the sender himself does not believe in add a touch of falsehood to the entire.

Sincerity

A sincere approach to an issue is clearly evident to the receiver. If the sender is genuine, it will be reflected in the manner in which he communicates.

Suppose there is a small element of deceit involved in the interaction or on the part of the sender.

If the receiver is keen and observant, he would be able to sense the make-believe situation and, business transactions, even if going full swing, would not materialize.

[Source – 4s-of-communication]

 

LET US SUM UP

Communication is defined as “the process of passing information and understanding from one person to another, it is essentially a bridge of meaning between people” All communication is essentially sharing of information or some message. Communication is the most important of our social activities.

We can classify communication as interpersonal, interpersonal, group communication, Meta communication, upward, downward, lateral, diagonal, formal, informal, oral, written or non-verbal communication.

Reading, writing, speaking and listening are the four skills of communication The objective of communication may inform, persuade, to train, motivate, educate, to relate, reprimand, to rectify and so on.

 

Important Study Material for Communication(Study Notes Based on Latest UGC NET Syllabus)

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  1. Sunita Nandwani says

    please send notes to my email id

  2. Mehul says

    These notes are really informative…thanx..

  3. Nirnoy says

    Content is very good. Like to read it. But the 2nd link that is : Effective communication : verbal-nonverbal , classroom communication etc is not opening. Kindly check it and resolve so that we can go through that topic also.

  4. Jagdev singh Jaral says
  5. ajaz says

    assalamu alikum sir…i need first paper about ugc net….hope you ll send on an email.ajazahmadrah@gmail.com

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