Important Key Facts of Higher Education System in India for UGC NET

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CBSE (UGC) NET Paper 1 Higher Education System Expectation  for Paper 1 Questions were lies in the one of following sectors. So its important to have basic ideas of following topics and

  • Understanding of organization and governance in higher education.(Different type of college and universities )
  • Various institutions of higher education.
  • Higher education governance, administration, and educational politics.(NEW EDUCATION POLICY)
  • Specific organizational policy goals and implementation(UGC,NAAC,AICTE)
  • Changing organizations and systems.(Recent Changes)

Key Notes for MCQs on Higher Education System, Governance, Polity & Administration

The Department of Higher Education, MHRD, is responsible for the overall development of the basic infrastructure of Higher Education sector, both in terms of policy and planning.

Higher Education Institutions in the country.are categorized in 3 broad Categories;

  1. University
  2. College and
  3. Stand-Alone
There are 757 Universities, 38056 Colleges and 11922 Stand Alone Institutions(according to Department of Higher Education, MHRD)
  • 43-Central Universities
  • 1 Central and 13 State Open Universities
  • 69 Institutes of National Importance
  • 316 State Public Universities
  •  37 Deemed  University

Top 3 State in terms of Higher no of Colleges in India(Directory of Institutions)

  • Uttar Pradesh
  • Maharashtra
  • Karnataka

College density, i.e. the number of college per lakh eligible population (population in age-group 18-23 years)

  • Highest -Puduchetrry(58)
  • Lowest -Bihar(7)

Regulatory Framework in India


APEX BODY in Higher Education

  1. All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)
  2. Council of Architecture (COA)
  3. Indian Council of Historical Research (ICHR)
  4. Indian Council of Philosophical Research (ICPR)
  5. Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR)
  6. University Grants Commission (UGC)


Statutory professional councils are:

  • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
  • Distance Education Council (DEC)
  • Indian Council for Agriculture Research (lCAR)
  • Bar Council of India(BCI)
  • National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
  • Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
  • Medical Council of India (MCI)
  • Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
  • Indian Nursing Council (INC)
  • Dentist Council of India (DCI)
  • Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
  • Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)

Important Abbreviation  to remember

  • National Research Professorship (NRP)
  • National Institute of Technical Teacher’s Training & Research(NITTTR)
  • Educational Consultants of India Limited (EdCIL)
  • Pupil Teacher Ratio (PTR)
  • National Book Trust of India(NBT)
  •  Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE)
  • All India Survey on Higher Education (AISHE)
  • The Indira Gandhi National Tribal University (IGNTU)
  • National Assessment and Accredition Council (NAAC)
  • National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF):The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) has been approved by the MHRD and launched by Honourable Minister of Human Resource Development on 29th September, 2015.

Important Portals by Department of Higher Education

IMPRINT is the first of its kind MHRD supported Pan-IIT + IISc joint initiative to address the major science and engineering challenges that India must address and champion to enable, empower and embolden the nation for inclusive growth and self-reliance. This novel initiative with twofold mandate is aimed at:

An initiative by IIT Bombay that aims to create the next generation of embedded systems engineers with a practical outlook to help provide practical solutions to some of the real world problems.

Govt. of India approved a new program titled Global Initiative of Academic Networks (GIAN) in Higher Education aimed at tapping the talent pool of scientists and entrepreneurs, internationally to encourage their engagement with the institutes of Higher Education in India so as to augment the country’s existing academic resources.

The National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) has been accepted by the MHRD and launched by Honourable Minister for Human Resource development on 29th September 2015. This framework outlines a methodology to rank institutions across the country.

Major Indian Govt Initiatives

Prime Minister Mr Narendra Modi launched the Skill India initiative – ‘Kaushal Bharat, Kushal Bharat’. Under this initiative, the government has set itself a target of training 400 million citizens by 2022 that would enable them to find jobs. The initiatives launched include various programmes like: Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY), National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015, Skill Loan scheme, and the National Skill Development Mission.

  • PMKVY is the flagship program under the Skill India Initiative and it includes incentivising skill training by providing financial rewards on completion of training to the participants. Over the next year 2.4 million Indians are believed to be benefitted from this scheme.
  • National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship 2015 is India’s first integrated program to develop skill and promote entrepreneurship simultaneously. The vision of this programme is to skill the Indian youth rapidly with high standards and at the same time promote entrepreneurship thus creating wealth and gainful employment for the citizens.
  • Skill Loan Scheme is designed to disburse loans of Rs 5,000 (US$ 75.3) to Rs 150,000 (US$ 2,260) to 3.4 million Indians planning to develop their skills in the next five years.
  • The National Skill Development Mission is developed to expedite the implementation of skilling activities in India by providing robust institutional framework at the centre and the state.

The National Skill Development Corporation of India (NSDC) under a Public Private Partnership promoted by the Ministry of Finance, Government of India signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Center for Research & Industrial Staff Performance (CRISP), India to explore national and international opportunities for strengthening skills development in India.

[Source Courtesy  An initiative of the Ministry of Commerce & Industry, Government of India]

The Union budget 2016-17 has made the following provisions for the education sector:

  • 10 public and 10 private educational institutions to be made world-class
  • 62 new Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (JNV) to provide quality education
  • Digital literacy scheme to be launched for covering six crore additional rural households
  • National Web Portal for promotion of National Apprenticeship Scheme for Graduates, Diploma holders and 10+2 pass-outs vocational certificate holders.
  • The Human Resource Development (HRD) Ministry has entered into a partnership with private companies, including Tata Motors Ltd, Tata Consultancy Services Ltd and real-estate firm Hubtown Ltd, to open three Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), through Public-Private Partnership (PPP), at Nagpur, Ranchi, and Pune.

Major Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflow into the education sector in India

  • The total amount of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) inflow into the education sector in India stood at US$ 1,256 million from April 2000 to March 2016, according to data released by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP).
  • Cisco Systems plans to invest US$ 100 million in India over the next 2 years, will be used to fund early-stage and growth-stage companies in the country, open six new innovation labs, three centres of expertise and train around 250,000 students by 2020.
  • Byju’s, an education technology start-up, has raised US$ 75 million from US-based venture capital firm Sequoia Capital and Belgium-based investment firm Sofina, which will be used to improve content delivery, expand product pipeline, launch in new markets and continue to build its talent pool.
  • The World Bank has extended US$ 50 million loan to support Indian government’s Nai Manzil scheme which aims to address educational and livelihood needs of minority communities through its educational and skill development programmes.
  • The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) has mandated the appointment of a special educator for children with learning disabilities so that they could be assimilated with other students. This directive came as a part of “inclusive practices” philosophy of CBSE and strict guidelines of ‘Right to Education” Act.
  • Tata Trusts, part of the Tata Group, has entered in to a strategic partnership with web-based free learning portal, Khan Academy, and seeks to use technology to provide free education to anyone, anywhere in India.

Other References to Study