Important Government bodies of India
As you are aware of the latest syllabus changes in the UGC NET Exam paper 1. We have covered the entire syllabus of unit 10 based on the Higher Education System into different part. Some topics are too generic so they require multiple articles to cover the entire content. For example Policies, Governance, and Administration is a generic topic which contains a good amount of polity system notes.
Follow the below links based on topics specified by syllabus – these are divided into 6 (Topics )+ 1 (Solved MCQ)
Unit-X Higher Education System
- Institutions of higher learning and education in ancient India.
- Evolution of higher learning and research in Post Independence India.
- Oriental, Conventional and Non-conventional learning programmes in India.
- Professional, Technical and Skill Based education.
- Value education and environmental education.
- Policies, Governance, and Administration.
- MCQ Based on Higher Education System
Please feel free to reach us with your feedback or lets us know in case more details or topics need to be added.
#1 Election Commission
The Election Commission is a permanent, independent body established by the Constitution of India directly to ensure free and fair elections in the country. Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction, and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of president of India and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the election commission.
- Elections are conducted according to the constitutional provisions supplemented by laws made by Parliament.
- The major laws are Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, and the Representation of the People Act, 1951, which deals in detail with all aspects
of conduct of elections and post-election disputes.
- The electoral system in India is borrowed from the one operating in Great Britain. Presently, the Election Commission consists of one Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and two Election Commissioners.
Powers and functions
- To determine the territorial areas of the electoral constituencies throughout the country based on the Delimitation Commission Act of Parliament.
- To prepare and periodically revise electoral rolls and to register all eligible voters.
- To notify the dates and schedules of elections and to scrutinize nomination papers.
- To grant recognition to political parties and allot election symbols to them.
- To act as a court for settling disputes related to granting of recognition to political parties and allotment of election symbols to them.
- To determine the code of conduct to be observed by the parties and the candidates at the time of elections.
- To advise the President on matters relating to the disqualification of the members of Parliament.
- To advise the governor on matters relating to the disqualification of the members of the state legislature.
- To cancel polls in the event of rigging, booth capturing, violence and other irregularities.
- To register political parties for elections and grant them the status of national or state parties based on their poll performance.
- Since its inception in 1950 and till 15 October 1989, the Election Commission functioned as a single-member body consisting of the Chief Election Commissioner.
- By an ordinance of 1993, the power of Election Commissioners have been made equal to those of the
Chief Election Commissioner.
- The Commission works under the overall supervision of the Chief Election Commissioner.
- The tenure of the CEC and the Election Commissioners has been fixed as six years
#2 Union Public Service Commission
The first Public Service Commission was set up on October 1st, 1926. However, its limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people’s aspirations and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act 1935.
- The first Public Service Commission was set up on October 1st, 1926. However, its limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people’s aspirations and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act 1935. Under this Act, for the first time, provision was also made for the formation of Public Service Commissions at the provincial level.
- The Constituent Assembly, after independence, saw the need for giving a secure and autonomous status to Public Service Commissions both at Federal and Provincial levels for ensuring unbiased recruitment to Civil Services. With the promulgation of the new Constitution for independent India on 26th January 1950, the Federal Public Service Commission was accorded a constitutional status as an autonomous entity and given the title – Union Public Service Commission.
- The UPSC has been established under Article 315 of the Constitution of India.
- The Commission consists of a Chairman and ten Members. The chairman and members of the commission hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. It is an independent constitutional body.
- The main function of the UPSC Recruitment to services and posts under the Union through the conduct of competitive examinations.
State Public Service Commission A state public service commission consists of a chairman and other members appointed by the governor of the state. But they can be removed only by the President. It is an independent constitutional body.
- The chairman and members of the commission hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier.
- The main function of the SPSC To conduct examinations for appointments to the services of the state.
Joint State Public Service Commission The Constitution makes a provision for the establishment of a Joint State Public Service Commission (JSPSC) for two or more states.
A JSPSC can be created by an act of Parliament on the request of the state legislatures concerned. Thus, a JSPSC is a statutory and not a constitutional body. The chairman of JSPSC is appointed by the President.
#3 Finance Commission
Article 280 of the Constitution of India provides for a Finance Commission as a quasi-judicial body. It is constituted by the President of India every fifth year or at such earlier time as he considers necessary.
The Finance Commission consists of a chairman and four other members to be appointed by the president.
Main functions of Finance Commission
- The distribution of the net proceeds of taxes to be shared between the Centre and the states, and the allocation between the states of the respective shares of such proceeds.
- Determination of the factors that should govern the grants-in-aid to the states by the Centre. The commission submits its report to the President. He lays it before both the Houses of Parliament along with an explanatory memorandum as to the action taken on its recommendations.
#4 COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL OF INDIA
The Constitution of India (Article 148) provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor
General of India (CAG).It is the supreme audit institution of India.
He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department and the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels—the Centre and the state.
The reports of the CAG are taken into account by the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament and state legislatures
- The CAG is also the head of the Indian Audits and Accounts Service (IA&AS)
- The office of the CAG was established in 1860
- The first CAG of India was V Narahari Rao (1948-1954)
- The current CAG is Vinod Rai (2008 – present)
Appointment and term
- The CAG is appointed by the President of India. He holds office for six years or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
- He can resign any time from his office by addressing the resignation letter to the president. He can also be
removed by the President on same grounds and in the same manner as a judge of the Supreme Court.
- He Audits the total expenditure of Center & State Govt and he Consolidated Fund of India and consolidated fund of each state.
- He audits all expenditure from the Contingency Fund of India and the Public Account of India as well as the contingency fund of each state and the public account of each state.
- He audits the accounts of any other authority when requested by the President or Governor. For example, the audit of local bodies.
Note: He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre to President and relating to the accounts of a state to the governor.
#5. ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA
- The Attorney General is the Union Government’s chief legal advisor and is its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court
- The Attorney General is the highest law officer in the country
- The first Attorney General of independent India was M C Setalvad 1950-1963
- The current Attorney General is G E Vahanvati (2009 – present)
Terms of service
- The Attorney General is appointed by the President under Article 76 of the Constitution
- To be appointed Attorney General, a candidate must be qualified to be appointed as a
Judge of the Supreme Court
- The Attorney General gives legal advice to the Government of India
- He has the right of audience in all courts in India
- The Attorney General can participate in proceedings of the Parliament without the right to
- The Attorney General appears on behalf of the Government of India in all cases in the
- The Attorney General is to be consulted only in legal matters of greatest importance and
only after the Ministry of Law has been consulted
- All references to the AG are made by the Ministry of Law
- The Attorney General cannot appear against the Government of India
- The AG cannot defend an accused in criminal proceedings
- The AG cannot accept the directorship of a company without the permission of the government
- The AG does not have any executive authority
- The Attorney General is assisted by the Solicitor General and four Additional Solicitor
#6 Solicitor General for India
- The Solicitor General assists the Attorney General
- He is the second-highest law officer of the country
- The Solicitor General is assisted by four Additional Solicitors General for India
Unlike the Attorney General, the Solicitor General does not give legal advice to the government. The primary responsibility of the Solicitor General is to appear in courts on behalf of the
Government of India
- The first Solicitor General of independent India was C K Daphtary (1950-1963)
- The current Solicitor General is Gopal Subramaniam (2009 – present)
The Advocate General
- Each state has an Advocate General, whose position is similar to that of the Attorney
General of the Center
- The Advocate General is appointed by the Governor
- A person must be qualified to be a Judge of the High Court to be appointed as Advocate
- The Advocate General can participate in proceedings of the state legislature without the
right to vote
#7 National Commission for Women
- The National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) of India was established on 12 October 1993. The statute under which it is established is the Protection of Human Rights Act (PHRA), 1993 as amended by the Protection of Human Rights (Amendment) Act, 2006.
- It conforms with the Paris Principles, adopted at the first international workshop on national institutions for the promotion and protection of human rights held in Paris in October 1991, and endorsed by the General Assembly of the United Nations by its Regulations 48/134 of 20 December 1993.
- The NHRC is an embodiment of India’s concern for the promotion and protection of human rights.
- Section 2(1)(d) of the PHRA defines Human Rights as the rights relating to life, liberty, equality and dignity of the individual guaranteed by the Constitution or embodied in the International Covenants and enforceable by courts in Ind
#8 CENTRAL VIGILANCE COMMISSION
- The Central Vigilance Commission was set up by the Government in February 1964 on the recommendations of the Committee on Prevention of Corruption, headed by Shri K. Santhanam, to advise and guide Central Government agencies in the field of vigilance.
- CVC is conceived to be the apex vigilance institution, free of control from any executive authority, monitoring all vigilance activity under the Central Government and advising various authorities in Central Government organizations in planning, executing, reviewing and reforming their vigilance work.
- Consequent upon promulgation of an Ordinance by the President, the Central Vigilance Commission has been made a multi-member Commission with “statutory status” with effect from 25th August 1998.
- The Commission shall consist of:
- A Central Vigilance Commissioner – Chairperson;
- Not more than two Vigilance Commissioners – Members;
#9 NITI Aayog
- The National Institution for Transforming India, also called NITI Aayog, was formed via a resolution of the Union Cabinet on January 1, 2015. NITI Aayog is the premier policy ‘Think Tank’ of the Government of India, providing both directional and policy inputs. While designing strategic and long term policies and programmes for the Government of India, NITI Aayog also provides relevant technical advice to the Centre and States.
- The Government of India, in keeping with its reform agenda, constituted the NITI Aayog to replace the Planning Commission instituted in 1950.
- This was done to better serve the needs and aspirations of the people of India. An important evolutionary change from the past, NITI Aayog acts as the quintessential platform of the Government of India to bring States to act together in the national interest, and thereby fosters Cooperative Federalism.
- To foster cooperative federalism through structured support initiatives and mechanisms with the States continuously, recognizing that strong States make a strong nation
- To develop mechanisms to formulate credible plans at the village level and aggregate these progressively at higher levels of government
- To ensure, on areas that are specifically referred to it, that the interests of national security are incorporated in economic strategy and policy
- To pay special attention to the sections of our society that may be at risk of not benefiting adequately from economic progress
- To design strategic and long term policy and programme frameworks and initiatives, and monitor their progress and their efficacy. The lessons learnt through monitoring and feedback will be used for making innovative improvements, including necessary mid-course corrections
- To provide advice and encourage partnerships between key stakeholders and national and international like-minded Think tanks, as well as educational and policy research institutions.
- To create a knowledge, innovation and entrepreneurial support system through a collaborative community of national and international experts, practitioners and other partners.
- To offer a platform for resolution of inter-sectoral and inter departmental issues to accelerate the implementation of the development agenda.
# 10 Central Bureau of Investigation
- At an early stage of World War-II, the Government of India realised that vast increase in expenditure for war efforts had provided opportunities to unscrupulous and anti-social persons, both officials and non-officials, for indulging in bribery and corruption at the cost of public and the Government. It was felt that Police and other Law Enforcement Agencies under the State Governments were not in a position to cope with the situation.
- An executive order was, therefore, passed by the Government of India in 1941, setting up the Special Police Establishment (SPE) under a DIG in the then Department of War with a mandate to investigate cases of bribery and corruption in transactions with which War and Supply Department of the Government of India was concerned.
- CBI investigations have a major impact on the political and economic life of the nation. The following broad categories of criminal cases are handled by the CBI:
- Cases of corruption and fraud committed by public servants of all Central Govt. Departments, Central Public Sector Undertakings and Central Financial Institutions.
- Economic crimes, including bank frauds, financial frauds, Import-Export & Foreign Exchange violations, large-scale smuggling of narcotics, antiques, cultural property and smuggling of other contraband items etc.
- Special Crimes, such as cases of terrorism, bomb blasts, sensational homicides, kidnapping for ransom and crimes committed by the mafia/the underworld.
The CBI is headed by a Director. the other police ranks in CBI are Special Director/Addl. Director, Joint Director, Dy. Inspr. General of Police, Inspector, Sub-Inspector, Assistant Sub-Inspector, Head Constable and Constable.