Top 10 Important Government Bodies You Must Know About
Important Government Bodies Roles and Some Important Points
Below is the list of Top 10 Important Government Bodies Details. These are Important for the first paper1 of UGC NET Exam. This has always been observed that Question has been asked form below list of Important Government Bodies Roles.
Let’s have look at important Government bodies of India!
The Election Commission is a permanent, independent body established by the Constitution of India directly to ensure free and fair elections in the country. Article 324 of the Constitution provides that the power of superintendence, direction, and control of elections to parliament, state legislatures, the office of president of India and the office of vice-president of India shall be vested in the election commission.
- Elections are conducted according to the constitutional provisions supplemented by laws made by Parliament.
- The major laws are Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals with the preparation and revision of electoral rolls, and the Representation of the People Act, 1951, which deals in detail with all aspects
of conduct of elections and past election disputes.
- The electoral system in India in borrowed from the one operating in Great Britain. Presently, the Election Commission consists of one Chief Election Commissioner (CEC) and two Election Commissioners.
Powers and functions
- To determine the territorial areas of the electoral constituencies throughout the country on the basis of the Delimitation Commission Act of Parliament.
- To prepare and periodically revise electoral rolls and to register all eligible voters.
- To notify the dates and schedules of elections and to scrutinise nomination papers.
- To grant recognition to political parties and allot election symbols to them.
- To act as a court for settling disputes related to granting of recognition to political parties and allotment of election symbols to them.
- To determine the code of conduct to be observed by the parties and the candidates at the time of elections.
- To advise the President on matters relating to the disqualification of the members of Parliament.
- To advise the governor on matters relating to the disqualification of the members of state legislature.
- To cancel polls in the event of rigging, booth capturing,violence and other irregularities.
- To register political parties for the purpose of elections and grant them the status of national or state parties on the basis of their poll performance.
- Since its inception in 1950 and till 15 October 1989, the Election Commission functioned as a single-member body consiting of the Chief Election Commissioner.
- By an ordinance of 1993, the power of Election Commissioners have been made equal to those of the
Chief Election Commissioner.
- The Commission works under the overall supervision of the Chief Election Commissioner.
- The tenure of the CEC and the Election Commissioners has been fixed as six years
Union Public Service Commission
The first Public Service Commission was set up on October 1st, 1926. However, its limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people’s aspirations and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act 1935.
- The first Public Service Commission was set up on October 1st, 1926. However, its limited advisory functions failed to satisfy the people’s aspirations and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of the Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act 1935. Under this Act, for the first time, provision was also made for the formation of Public Service Commissions at the provincial level.
- The Constituent Assembly, after independence, saw the need for giving a secure and autonomous status to Public Service Commissions both at Federal and Provincial levels for ensuring unbiased recruitment to Civil Services. With the promulgation of the new Constitution for independent India on 26th January, 1950, the Federal Public Service Commission was accorded a constitutional status as an autonomous entity and given the title – Union Public Service Commission.
- The UPSC has been established under Article 315 of the Constitution of India.
- The Commission consists of a Chairman and ten Members. The chairman and members of the commission hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. It is an independent constitutional body.
- Main function of the UPSC Recruitment to services and posts under the Union through conduct of competitive examinations.
State Public Service Commission A state public service commission consists of a chairman and other members appointed by the governor of the state. But they can be removed only by the President. It is an independent constitutional body.
- The chairman and members of the commission hold office for a term of six years or until they attain the age of 62 years, whichever is earlier.
- Main function of the SPSC To conduct examinations for appointments to the services of the state.
Joint State Public Service Commission The Constitution makes a provision for the establishment of a Joint State Public Service Commission (JSPSC) for two or more states.
- A JSPSC can be created by an act of Parliament on the request of the state legislatures concerned. Thus, a JSPSC is a statutory and not a constitutional body. The chairman of JSPSC is appointed by the President.
Article 280 of the Constitution of India provides for a Finance Commission as a quasi-judicial body. It is constituted by the President of India every fifth year or at such earlier time as he considers necessary.
The Finance Commission consists of a chairman and four other members to be appointed by the president.
Main functions of Finance Commission
- The distribution of the net proceeds of taxes to be shared between the Centre and the states, and the allocation between the states of the respective shares of such proceeds.
- Determination of the factors that should govern the grants-in-aid to the states by the Centre. The commission submits its report to the President. He lays it before both the Houses of Parliament along with an explanatory memorandum as to the action taken on its recommendations.
COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL OF INDIA
The Constitution of India (Article 148) provides for an independent office of the Comptroller and Auditor
General of India (CAG).It is the supreme audit institution of India.
He is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department and the guardian of the public purse and controls the entire financial system of the country at both the levels—the Centre and the state.
The reports of the CAG are taken into account by the Public Accounts Committee of Parliament and state legislatures
- The CAG is also the head of the Indian Audits and Accounts Service (IA&AS)
- The office of the CAG was established in 1860
- The first CAG of India was V Narahari Rao (1948-1954)
- The current CAG is Vinod Rai (2008 – present)
Appointment and term
- The CAG is appointed by the President of India. He holds office for a period of six years or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
- He can resign any time from his office by addressing the resignation letter to the president. He can also be
removed by the President on same grounds and in the same manner as a judge of the Supreme Court.
- He Audit the total expenditure of Center & State Govt and he Consolidated Fund of India and consolidated fund of each state.
- He audits all expenditure from the Contingency Fund of India and the Public Account of India as well as the contingency fund of each state and the public account of each state.
- He audits the accounts of any other authority when requested by the President or Governor. For example, the audit of local bodies.
Note: He submits his audit reports relating to the accounts of the Centre to President and relating to the accounts of a state to governor.
ATTORNEY GENERAL OF INDIA
- The Attorney General is the Union Government’s chief legal advisor and is its primary lawyer in the Supreme Court
- The Attorney General is the highest law officer in the country
- The first Attorney General of independent India was M C Setalvad 1950-1963
- The current Attorney General is G E Vahanvati (2009 – present)
Terms of service
- The Attorney General is appointed by the President under Article 76 of the Constitution
- To be appointed Attorney General, a candidate must be qualified to be appointed as a
Judge of the Supreme Court
- The Attorney General gives legal advice to the Government of India
- He has the right of audience in all courts in India
- The Attorney General can participate in proceedings of the Parliament without the right to
- The Attorney General appears on behalf of the Government of India in all cases in the
- The Attorney General is to be consulted only in legal matters of greatest importance and
only after the Ministry of Law has been consulted
- All references to the AG are made by the Ministry of Law
- The Attorney General cannot appear against the Government of India
- The AG cannot defend an accused in criminal proceedings
- The AG cannot accept directorship of a company without permission of the government
- The AG does not have any executive authority
- The Attorney General is assisted by the Solicitor General and four Additional Solicitor
Solicitor General for India
- The Solicitor General assists the Attorney General
- He is the second highest law officer of the country
- The Solicitor General is assisted by four Additional Solicitors General for India
Unlike the Attorney General, the Solicitor General does not give legal advice to the government. The primary responsibility of the Solicitor General is to appear in courts on behalf of the
Government of India
- The first Solicitor General of independent India was C K Daphtary (1950-1963)
- The current Solicitor General is Gopal Subramaniam (2009 – present)
The Advocate General
- Each state has an Advocate General, whose position is similar to that of the Attorney
General of the Centre
- The Advocate General is appointed by the Governor
- A person must be qualified to be a Judge of the High Court to be appointed as Advocate
- The Advocate General can participate in proceedings of the state legislature without the
right to vote