Best Guide for NTA NET Exam Paper1

Higher Education Regulatory Framework-[Updated]

Regulatory and Statutory Bodies in India

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If you are preparing for UGC NET examination you need to keep eye on recent happening in  Higher Education System space.

It has been seen that most of the time question was asked based on some factual data & new adaptation or Changes in policy.

If we talk about the syllabus of  (UGC) NET Paper 1 Higher Education System section for Paper 1 Questions were lies in one of the following sectors.

So it’s important to have basic ideas of following topics:-

  • Understanding of organisation and governance in higher education.(Different type of college and universities )
  • Various institutions of higher education.
  • Higher education governance, administration, and educational politics.(NEW EDUCATION POLICY)
  • Specific organisational policy goals and implementation(UGC,NAAC,AICTE)
  • Changing organisations and systems.(Recent Changes)

Let’s have look at some important topics & key facts based on the higher education system.

Department of Higher Education

The Department of Higher Education, MHRD, is responsible for the overall development of the basic infrastructure of the Higher Education sector, both in terms of policy and planning. Under a planned development process, the Department looks after expansion of access and qualitative improvement in the Higher Education, through world-class Universities, Colleges and other Institutions.

Role of Department of Higher Education

  • Enhancement of Gross Enrolment Ratio by expanding access through all modes.
  • Promoting the participation of these sections of the society whose GER is lower than the national average.
  • To improve quality and to promote academic reforms
  • Setting up of new educational institutions and also capacity expansion and improvement of the existing institutions.
  • Use of Technology in Higher Education.
  • Development of Vocational Education and Skill Development.
  • Development of Indian Languages.
  • International Collaboration in the field of education.

[Source – ]

 UGC & Higher Education Regulatory Framework

Soon after Independence, the University Education Commission was set up in 1948 under the Chairmanship of Dr. S Radhakrishnan “to report on Indian university education and suggest improvements and extensions that might be desirable to suit the present and future needs and aspirations of the country”. It recommended that the University Grants Committee be reconstituted on the general model of the University Grants Commission of the United Kingdom with a full-time Chairman and other members to be appointed from amongst educationists of repute.

In 1952, the Union Government decided that all cases pertaining to the allocation of grants-in-aid from public funds to the Central Universities and other Universities and Institutions of higher learning might be referred to the University Grants Commission. Consequently, the University Grants Commission (UGC) was formally inaugurated by late Shri Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, the then Minister of Education, Natural Resources and Scientific Research on 28 December 1953.

The UGC, however, was formally established only in November 1956 as a statutory body of the Government of India through an Act of Parliament for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education in India.

In order to ensure effective region-wise coverage throughout the country, the UGC has decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bhopal, Guwahati and Bangalore. The head office of the UGC is located at Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg in New Delhi, with two additional bureaus operating from 35, Feroze Shah Road and the South Campus of University of Delhi as well.

Read More About –  University Grants Commission Act And Rules & Regulations Under The Act, 1956 – UGC ACT


Regulatory Structure of Higher Education in India


  • The regulatory framework of this sector in India is multi-layered. At the last chain of delivery – the classroom, three sets of regulations operate – University, College, and Council
  • Universities awarding their own degrees are classified into five types based on their management – Central University, State University, Private University, Institutions-deemed-to-be-a-University and Institute of National Importance. Colleges award degrees in the name of the university to which they are affiliated.
  • The University Grants Commission is a statutory organisation established by an Act of Parliament in 1956 for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education.
  •  Apart from providing grants to eligible universities and colleges, the Commission also advises the Central and State Governments on the measures which are necessary for the development of Higher Education. It functions from New Delhi as well as its six Regional offices located in Bangalore, Bhopal, Guwahati, Hyderabad, Kolkata and Pune.
  • Different regulatory bodies such as the Medical Council of India (MCI), All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the Bar Council India (BCI), among others, manage different professional courses. There are two accrediting institutions– namely National Board of Accreditation (NBA) established by AICTE and National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) established by UGC.
  • The main governing body at the tertiary sector is the University Grants Commission (UGC). It has a dual function of providing grants as well as coordinating and maintaining the standards of higher education institutes.
  • All public universities are governed by the UGC, as well as funded by it. The UGC Act of 1956 specifies the entire step-by-step administration of the University it governs, ranging from the number of working days to a number of lecture hours per subject, as well as the minimum qualification required for students to enrol and for teachers to teach a course.
  • UGC Regulations, 2012 mandate that all higher education institutions be accredited by an accreditation agency.
  • Powers and functions of UGC include allocation as well as disbursement of funds from the Central/State Government for development, maintenance as well as for research purposes, inspection of universities, conferring of degrees, etcetera.
  • Central Government is responsible for major policy relating to higher education in the country. It provides grants to UGC and establishes central universities in the country. The Central Government is also responsible for declaration of Education Institutions as ‘Deemed to be University’ on the recommendation of the UGC.
  • The special Constitutional responsibility of the Central Government: Education is on the ‘Concurrent list’ subject to Entry 66 in the Union List of the Constitution. This gives exclusive Legislative Power to the Central Govt. for co-ordination and determination of standards in Institutions of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.
  • The coordination and cooperation between the Union and the States is brought about in the field of education through the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE).

Supporting the UGC, accreditation for higher learning over Universities is overseen by the following fifteen autonomous regulatory and statutory institutions:

List of the Regulatory and Statutory Bodies in India( Total-15)

Supporting the UGC, accreditation for higher learning over Universities is overseen by the following fifteen autonomous regulatory and statutory institutions:

Higher Education Regulatory Body

To summarise, these above councils are responsible for the recognition of courses, promotion of professional institutions, regulating the course syllabus, providing grants and other awards to various fields of education. These bodies play an important role in the setting up of an institution imparting a degree or diploma course in higher education.

Short Notes on Statutory professional councils
  • All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)
  • Indian Council for Agriculture Research (lCAR)
  • Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)
  • Distance Education Council (DEC)
  • Medical Council of India (MCI)
  • Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM)
  • Rehabilitation Council of India (RCI)
  • National Council of Rural Institutes
  • Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)
  • Indian Nursing Council (INC)
  • Council of Architecture (COA)
  • National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)
  • Bar Council of India(BCI)
  • State Council of Higher Education
  • Dentist Council of India (DCI)


All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)

All India Council for Technical Education has been established under the AICTE Act, 1987. The council is authorized to take all steps that are considered appropriate for ensuring coordinated and integrated development of technical education and for maintenance of standards. The Council may, amongst other things:

  • coordinate the development of technical education in the country at all levels;
  • evolve suitable performance appraisal system for technical institutions and universities imparting technical education, incorporating norms and mechanisms for enforcing accountability;
  • lay down norms and standards for courses, curricula, physical and instructional facilities, staff pattern, staff qualifications, quality instruction, assessment and examinations;
  • grant approval for starting new technical institutions and for the introduction of a new course or programmes in consultation with the agencies concerned.

What is available in AICTE Website?

The website provides a list of approved institutes – state-wise for Degree and Diploma Programs in Engineering and Technology, MCA & MBA, Pharmacy, Architecture & Applied Arts, Hotel Management & Catering Technology and M.E./M.Tech. / M.Pharm. /M.Arch.). The site also provides the list of programs accredited by National Board of Accreditation (NBA) under the AICTE. The website also provides model curriculum for UG Programs and the list of books recommended for management education.

For more info, Visit


Medical Council of India (MCI)

The Medcial Council of India (MCI) was set up by the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, amended in 1993. The council is empowered to prescribe minimum standards for medical education required for granting recognized medical qualifications by universities or medical institutions in India. The Council is empowered to make regulations relating to:

  1. the course and period of study, including duration of practical training to be undertaken, the subjects of examination, and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained in universities or medical institutions for grant of recognized medical qualifications;

  2. the standard of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for medical education; and

  3. the conduction of professional examinations, qualifications of examiners, and the conditions of admissions to such examinations.

The Council is also responsible to give its recommendations to the Central Government for establishing new medical colleges, opening of new or higher courses of study and increase in admission capacity in any courses of study or training.

What is available in MCI Website ?

MCI website provides for a list of courses and colleges recognized by MCI in searchable interface. Search can be university, state or course wise.Site also provides status of application of medical professionals who apply for registration of the MCI.

For more info,Visit


Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR)

ICAR has established various research centres in order to meet the agricultural research and education needs of the country.It is actively pursuing human resource development in the field of agricultural sciences by setting up numerous agricultural universities spanning the entire country. It provides funding to nearly 30(Thirty) State Agricultural Universities, one Central University and several Deemed Universities. These universities employ about 26,000 scientists for teaching, research and extension education; of these over 6000 scientists are employed in the ICAR supported coordinated projects.

For more info,Visit

National Council for Teacher Education (NCTE)

The National Council for Teacher Education is a statutory body set up under the National Council for Teacher Education Act, 1993 to facilitate planned and coordinated development of the teacher education system in the country, and for regulation and proper maintenance of norms and standards in the teacher education system. The mandate given to the NCTE is very broad and covers the whole gamut of teacher education programs including research and training of persons to equip them to teach at pre-primary, primary, secondary and senior secondary stages in schools, and non-formal education, part-time education, adult education and distance (correspondence) education courses. The Council, under Section 12 is responsible for the following activities and functions:


  • to coordinate and monitor teacher education and its development in the country;
  • lay down guidelines in respect of minimum qualifications for a person to be employed as a teacher;
  • lay down norms for any specified category of courses or trainings in teacher education;
  • lay down guidelines for compliance by recognised institutions for starting new courses or training;
  • lay down stadards in respect of examiniations, leading to teacher education qualifications;and
  • examine and review periodically the implementation of the norms, guidelines and standards laid down by the Council.

The Council is empowered to grant recognition of institutions offering courses or training in teacher education.

What is available in NCTE Website ?

NCTE website provides details of institutions recognized by NCTE including courses recognized by it. There is a summary Fact Sheet about the institution with some details of the Courses. The site also includes a interesting section on Teacher as a Transformer. In this section, students can contribute and recall teachers who transformed them.

For more info,Visit


Dental Council of India (DCI)

Dental Council of India, constituted under the Denstists Act, 1948, is a Statutory Body incorporated under an Act of Parliament to regulate the dental education and the profession of Dentistry throughout India. The Council is responsible for according recognition to dental degree awarded by various universities and also for maintaining uniform standards of dental education in India. The Dental Council of India (DCI) lays down minimum requirements in respect of staff and infrastructure and prescribes the syllabus and the scheme of examinations.

For more info,Visit


Pharmacy Council of India (PCI)

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The Pharmacy Council of India (PCI), also known as Central council, was constituted under section 3 of the Pharmacy Act, 1948. The PCI controls pharmacy education and profession in India up to graduate level. The Council prescribes the minimum standard of education for qualification as pharmacist.The Council prescribes:

  • The nature and period of study of practical training to be undertaken before admission to an examiniation;
  • the equipment and facilities to be provided for students undergoing approved courses of study;
  • the subject of examination and the standards therein to be attained;and
  • any other conditions of admission to examinations.

What is available in PCI Website ?

PCI site provides a list of institutions that are approved by the Council for Degree and Diploma Programs approved along with approved intake and year up to which approval is granted. This list is state-wise. Registration of pharmacists is done by State Pharmacy Councils.

For more info,Visit


Indian Nursing Council (INC)

The Indian Nursing Council is a statutory body constituted under the Indian Nursing Council Act, 1947. The Council is responsible for regulation and maintenance of a uniform standard of training for Nurses, Midwives, Auxilliary Nurse-Midwives and Health Visitors. Amongst other things, the Council is empowered to make regulations for:


  • prescribes the standard curricula for the training of nurses, midwives and health visitors; and for trining courses for teachers of nurses, midwives and health visitors, and for training in nursing administration;
  • prescribes conditions for admission to above courses; and
  • prescribes standard of examination and other requirements to be satisfied for securing recognization.

For more info,Visit


Bar Council of India (BCI)

The Bar Council of India is empowered to make rules to discharge its functions under the Advocates Act 1961. An important rule-making power is with reference to laying down guidelines for the standards of professional conduct and etiquette to be observed by advocates. The Bar Council of India Rules may prescribe for a class or category of person entitled to be enrolled as advocate. The Bar Council of India can also specify the conditions subject to which an advocate must have the right to practise and the circumstances under which a person must be deemed to practise as an advocate in a court.

For more info, Visit

Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH)

The Central Council of Homoeopathy was establishedunder the Homoeopathy Central Council Act, 1973. The Council prescribes and recognizes all homeopathic medicine qualifications. Any university or medical institutions that desires to grant a medical qualification in homeopathy is required to apply to the Council. The Council is responsible for constitution and maintenance of a Central Register of Homoeopathy and for matters connected therewith. All universities and Board of medical institutions in India are required to furnish all information regarding courses of study and examination. The Council is empowered to appoint inspectors at examinations and visitors to examine facilities.

For more info,Visit

Central Council for Indian Medicine (CCIM)

The Central Council of Indian Medicine is the statutory body constituted under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, 1970. This Council prescribes minimum standards of education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb. The Council is responsible to maintain a Central Register on Indian Medicine and prescribes Standards of Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Code of Ethics to be observed by the practitioners. The Council is empowered to appoint medical inspectors to observe the conduct of examinations, and visitors to inspect facilities in colleges, hospitals and other institutions imparting instruction in Indian medicine. The Council is responsible to frame regulations with respect to:

  • the courses and period of study, including practical training to be undertaken, the subject of examinations, and the standards of proficiency therein to be obtained in any university, board or medical institution for grant of recognized medical qualifications;
  • the standard of staff, equipment, accommodation, training and other facilities for education in Indian medicine; and
  • the conduct of professional examinations, etc.


What is available in CCIM Website ?

The website provides for list of colleges recognized by the Council for education in Indian Systems of Medicine viz. Ayurved, Siddha, Unani Tibb.

For more info,Visit


Council of Architecture

The Council of Architecture (COA) was constituted under the provisions of the Architects Act, 1972, enacted by the Parliament of India.The Act provides for registration of Architects, standards of education, recognized qualifications and standards of practice to be complied with by the practicing architects. The Council of Architecture is responsible to regulate the education and practice of profession throughout India besides maintaining the register of architects. Any person desirous of carrying on the profession of “Architect” must register himself with Council of Architecture.

The registration with Council of Architecture entitles a person to practice the profession of architecture, provided he holds a Certificate of Registration with up-to-date renewals. The registration also entitles a person to use the title and style of Architect. The title and style of architect can also be used by a firm of architects, of which all partners are registered with COA. Limited Companies, Private/Public Companies, societies and other juridical persons are not entitled to use the title and style of architect nor are they entitled to practice the profession of architecture.

The practice of the profession of an architect is governed by the Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations, 1989 (as amended in 2003), which deals with professional ethics and etiquette, conditions of engagement and scale of charges, architectural competition guidelines, etc. Pursuant to these Regulations, the Council of Architecture has framed guidelines governing various aspects of practice.

The Council prescribes qualifications and standards of education being imparted in institutions imparting architecture education. It set forth the requirement of eligibility for admission, course duration, standards of staff & accommodation, course content, examination, etc. These standards as provided in the said Regulations are required to be maintained by the institutions. The COA oversees the maintenance of the standards periodically by way of conducting inspections through Committees of Experts. The COA is required to keep the Central Government informed of the standards being maintained by the institutions and is empowered to make recommendations to the Government of India with regard to recognition and de-recognition of a qualification.

What is available in COA Website ?

The web site provides act, rules and regulation of the Council of Architecture (COA). The site lists all institutions, colleges and universities that offer courses in architecture in India. The site provides detailed information on various aspects of architecture designs and practices. It also provides important legal judgements relating to registration as architect. The site also provides other rules, regulations and Government notifications. Under its events and activities section, the site provides ongoing competitions, other events and activities in the field.

For more info,Visit

Rehabilitation Council

The Rehabilitation Council of India was set up as a registered society in 1986. However, it was soon found that a Society could not ensure proper standardization and acceptance of the standards by other Organizations. The Parliament enacted Rehabilitation Council of India Act in 1992. The Rehabilitation Council of India become Statutory Body on 22nd June 1993. The RCI Act was amended by the Parliament in 2000 to work it more broad based. The Act casts onerous responsibility on the Council. It also prescribes that any one delivering services to people with disability, who does not possess qualifications recognised by RCI, could be prosecuted. Thus the Council has the twin responsibility of standardizing and regulating the training of personnel and professional in the field of Rehabilitation and Special Education.

For more info,Visit


National Council for Rural Institutes

National Council of Rural Institutes is an autonomous society fully funded by the Ministry of HRD, Govt. of India. Registered on 19th October, 1995 with its Headquarter at Hyderabad, It was established with a main objective of promoting Rural Higher Education for advancing rural livelihoods with the instrument of education on the lines of Mahatma Gandhiji’s revolutionary concept of Nai Talim, a functional education based on the values proposed by Gandhiji. Other objectives of the council include teachers training, extension and research by networking with policy making bodies such as UGC, AICTE and research organizations like CSIR, AICTE etc., in addition to encouraging other educational institutions and voluntary agencies to develop in accordance with Gandhian Philosophy of education.

For more info,Visit

State Councils of Higher Education

Following the National Policy on Education, respective state governments have established State Councils of Higher Education (SCHE). These councils prepare coordinated programmes of development of higher education in each state. Thus they seek to consolidate the efforts and investments of institutions of higher education with the state.


Source – (The details of list of  Regulatory and Statutory Bodies in India has been taken from UGC  website its self. time to time there is change is Content we make best possible effort to keep this page updated how ever some time you may find it outdated – you can reference the UGC Website  )


National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC)

The National Policy on Education in 1986 initiated the idea of quality assurance in higher education in India. It was after this that the National Board of Accreditation (NBA) was formed under the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) under the UGC.

The NAAC was established as an independent body under the UGC in 1994 with the objective of maintaining quality higher education in India. Specifically, the NAAC accredits central, state, private, and Deemed-to-be-Universities, institutions of national importance, and affiliated and autonomous colleges. Higher education institutions are eligible for accreditation only after they have had two rounds of graduates, or have been in existence for six years; whichever comes first.

The University Grants Commission (Mandatory Assessment and Accreditation of Higher Educational Institutions) Regulations 2012 mandates that all universities, institutions, and colleges be accredited by an accreditation agency.

Evaluation by the NAAC has based on seven criteria:

  • Curricular Aspects
  • Teaching-Learning and Evaluation
  • Research, Consultancy, and Extension
  • Infrastructure and Learning Resources
  • Student Support and Progression
  • Governance, Leadership, and Management
  • Innovations and Best Practices

Accreditation grades are A, B, C, or D and based on the cumulative grade point average (CGPA) of the scores received on the criteria listed above and sub-sections known as Key Aspects. The CGPA is derived by taking into account a weighted score of the key aspects and criteria, and a weighted average of the criteria points. A grade of A, B, or C, means that the institution has been accredited.

They stand for ‘very good’, ‘good’, and ‘satisfactory’, respectively. A grade of D is unsatisfactory and is not accredited by the NAAC. The points for each of the criteria are allotted differently for universities, autonomous colleges, and affiliated colleges accounting for the difference in the way each functions. More points are allotted to the Teaching, Learning and Evaluation criterion for autonomous and affiliated colleges, than for universities, whereas universities are allotted more points for the Research, Consultancy, and Extension criterion.



The NBA was established by the AICTE in 1987 with the purpose of evaluating technical programs. It
became an autonomous accreditation body in January 2010, with a mission to ensure that technical and
professional institutions, including those in the engineering, technology, architecture, pharmacy, and
hospitality fields are providing relevant and quality education.

The accreditation process starts with a Self-Assessment Report (SAR) which is to be filled out by the
institution for the programs that are applying for accreditation.

The SAR covers the following criteria:
1) Vision, Mission, and Program Educational Objectives
2) Program Outcomes
3) Program Curriculum
4) Students’ Performance
5) Faculty Contributions
6) Facilities and Technical Support
7) Academic Support Units and Teaching-Learning Process
8) Governance, Institutional Support and Financial Resources
9) Continuous Improvement

Once the SAR is completed, the NBA constructs a team of one chairperson and two evaluators to evaluate the program. The team prepares a pre-visit report based on their observations of the SAR. A three-day visit to the program is set-up for the evaluators to note the strengths, weaknesses, concerns, and deficiencies of the program based off of the criteria.

The NBA assigns the institution one of three possible statuses for accreditation: Accredited,
Provisionally Accredited, or Not Accredited. The institute receives a status of Accredited for five years if
it gets a minimum of 750 points and a minimum of 60 per cent in each of the nine criteria.


Heads up! In other article we have also covered important higher education body and details around  Some Apex Body such as AICTE etc.




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