Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.
Updated as per latest UGC NET Syllabus.
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- Teaching: Concept, Objectives, Levels of teaching (Memory, Understanding and Reflective), Characteristics and basic requirements.
- Learner’s characteristics: Characteristics of adolescent and adult learners (Academic, Social, Emotional and Cognitive), Individual differences.
- Factors affecting teaching related to: Teacher, Learner, Support material, Instructional facilities, Learning environment and Institution.[This Post]
- Methods of teaching in Institutions of higher learning: Teacher centered vs. Learner centered methods; Off-line vs. On-line methods (Swayam, Swayamprabha, MOOCs etc.).
- Teaching Support System: Traditional, Modern and ICT based.
- Evaluation Systems: Elements and Types of evaluation, Evaluation in Choice Based Credit System in Higher education, Computer based testing, Innovations in evaluation systems.
- Solved MCQ Based on last 10 Year Exam & Other Frequently asked questions
Its well-known fact and based on various study to examine the direct and indirect effects of factors affecting the learning process or teaching significant evidence was provided that the learning process and teaching is affected both by direct and indirect variable. Not only this teaching process also gets impacted based on ‘individual’s characteristics’ of learner and teacher along with the environmental factors that influence their integration in the class room.
Learning is the one of most important factor that brings changes in the behavior of the learner…but there is some factor which influences the acquisition of knowledge provided by teachers.
These factors are broadly divided into three areas –
Learners Psychological /Individual Characteristic
Teachers & Class room supports
Environment and other surrounding factors
Factors affecting teaching
Teacher – Teacher plays and important role in the teaching-learning process as facilitator of learning. By adopting the best teaching techniques and efficient methods a teach could explore the right talent of the learners to help them towards quality learning process.
It depends on the various factors of teacher-
- Educational Qualification – Learning of different subjects and area can provide highly valued instruction which can effect than one who with only general degree. If you compare the teacher who has M.ED or PhD you will be able to identify the different ways of thinking and imparting knowledge to students.
- Skills – ‘Teaching Talent’ is different psychology. One who has higher degree can’t assure he has right instinct and can teach in better way than others. teaching skill is all about you connect with students; it depends on the method of teaching you apply, your way of explanation and engagement with students in the class room. Teacher need to have mastery of following skill –
- Communication skills for better involvement and engagement
- Use of teaching aids effectively
- Selection of teaching method appropriately
- Passion for teaching
- Human relation skills to act as best guide or mentor
- Experience – its well-known fact that it’s easy to become teacher after fulfilling the criteria but they actually become ‘Master’ with their experience. High Qualification may give teachers edge in terms of understanding the different topics or complex formula but it’s the experience in the classroom which helps you to learn and employ better methods to effect learning of students. This is also required to handle different mindset of different students in the class-room.
- Subject matter – Many time teachers has been assigned a subject in which he is not specialized and he himself not in better position to help learners in effective way …so the passion towards the subject and SME is also key factor that impact learning of students. For example, this is very rare chance that Arts Teacher can give good learning experience in subjects related to science.
Learner – Learning is most effective when the differences in learner’s language, cultural and social behaviors are taken into account, its necessary to take note of intelligence, ethnic group, race, belief and socioeconomic status of the learners which can influence the teaching in the class room. Every individual is different with others in the terms of physical, social and cultural orientation; these aspects make learner different from one another.
Also its depends on the interest of the learner including the aptitude, attitude, motivation, mental health and aspiration towards the goals of life.
In short – Psychological difference of learns plays important role in the terms of ability to learns things in the class room.
Environment and other factors –
- Support materials – Teacher Support system is set of tools that will improve student’s achievement by improving the capacity of teachers. Different teaching Aid and Support System influences the way decision are made and information is passed to students. Its help to analyze the area in which students are under performing. This also helps teachers to gain new skill to increase student learning by use of effective strategies. This is vast area which included many sub section to be worked upon by teacher to improve overall learning process through effective use of tools, assessment methods and professional development.
- Student assessments and scores
- Teaching Strategies and lesson plans
- Standards and benchmark
- Effective use of traditional, modern and ICT based tools
- Instructional facilities-
- Teaching Aids – Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include helping learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustrating or reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way.
- Learning environment
- Class-room environments – Class room environment plays important role in learning process and it effects both teacher and learner. While this is to be maintained by both by teacher and students. For active participation in education, concentration of students is required. Teacher need to focus of behavior of students along with other factors to improve the class-room environment so that students listen teachers’ voice while interacting with students.
- Socio-economic factor – Economic and social background of teacher and students also affect learning curve. It has direct and indirect effects on thinking level of students and teacher both. Various study of teaching has pointed poor and rich student classify economically and these factor has influence on their learning speed. On other side if teacher is less paid in terms of salary this also impact his thinking level and ways of teaching in the classroom.
- Expectations – Every parents have some sort of expectation with his ward in terms of what and where they want to see their children. this has psychological impact on students causing stress and impairments. It often seen that if student is not able to perform mentally it create depression and sometime leads to life failure. That’s the reason parent’s involvement in the learning process in important to ease out burden on students and helping them to improve learning as over all.
- Institution – Teacher is abiding by administrative policy of the institution effecting the learning process. There are chances that Teacher want to deliver in a way he loves to do but the institute policy don’t allow him to use his own method. This leads to dissatisfaction in teacher causing learning process to slow down. It should not be the case that teacher should allow the way they want but effective planning of lesson and consultation to improve learning path is required in line with the institute policy.
NCERT (National Council of Educational Research and Training) in its publication Core Teaching Skills (1982) has laid stress on the following teaching skills.
- Writing instructional objectives
- Organizing the content
- Creating set for introducing the lesson
- Introducing a lesson
- Structuring classroom questions
- Question delivery and its distribution
- Response management
- Illustrating with examples
- Using teaching aids
- Stimulus variation
- Pacing of the lesson
- Promoting pupil participation
- Use of blackboard
- Achieving closure of the lesson
- Giving assignments
- Evaluating the pupil’s progress
- Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and taking remedial measures
- Management of the class
Micro Teaching –
Micro-teaching is a product of research at Stanford University. It was first adopted in 1961 by Dwight W. Allen and his co-workers. It implies micro-element that systematically attempts to simplify the complexities of the teaching process.
Teaching is a complex process. It cannot be mastered in a rigid and general setting. So it is analyzed into well-defined components that can be practiced, taught and evaluated.
Micro-teaching concentrates on specific teaching behaviors and provides opportunity for practicing teaching under controlled conditions. So through micro-teaching, the behavior of the teacher and pupil is modified and the teaching-learning process is more effective by the skill training.
There are multiple scholarly articles available for factors affecting teaching which talks on the various key issues such as teacher student relationship, socioeconomic conditions, school’s policy, motivation and other. This includes parent’s expectation. So over all multiple factors participate in learning process to slow it down.
To overcome this issue NCERT in its publication ‘Core Teaching Skills’ has laid out stress on various teaching skill and concept of micro teaching has been introduced.
Suggested reading –
Read more at NCERT – Teaching Core Skills