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Short Notes on Various Environmental Protection Act | New Topic

Study Notes Based People, Development and Environment Unit of UGC NET Syllabus 2019

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Environmental Protection Act

Study Notes Based People, Development and Environment Unit of UGC NET Syllabus 2019

Environmental Protection Act 1986

19th November, 1986, Environment Protection Act came in force in the Parliament of India in the wake of Bhopal Tragedy. It is under Article 253 of the Indian Constitution. The Environment Protection Act is mainly to the protection and development of the environment from the danger of human beings, other living being, plants and property.

It mainly focuses on the prevention and development of pollution in environment and causes of human health if any accident happens.

National Action Plan on Climate Change

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) an initiative formulated by Government of India on 30th June, 2008 to deal with the future policies and programs for the climatic improvement and adjustment. It put together the national plan on water, renewable energy, energy efficiency agriculture, etc.

The executions of the Action plan are constituted under 8 missions that are responsible to achieve the goals of adaptation and improvement. They are as follows:

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) an initiative formulated by Government of India on 30th June, 2008 to deal with the future policies and programs for the climatic improvement and adjustment. It put together the national plan on water, renewable energy, energy efficiency agriculture, etc. The executions of the Action plan are constituted under 8 missions that are responsible to achieve the goals of adaptation and improvement. They are as follows:

  • National Solar Mission – The main objective is to use solar energy for power generation and other uses. To promote the use of solar power, this initiative was started on 2010.
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency – The main objective is to save and promote maximum energy by developing new policies and measures. In 2009, Prime Minister’s Council approved it on Climate Change.
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat – It emphasized on Energy conservation on urban waste, management recycling which includes production of power from waste, development of energy efficiency in buildings and use of public transport. Prime Minister approved this mission in 2011.
  • National Water Mission – To improve water efficiency through pricing and other measures. The main objective of the mission is to help to preserve water, minimize wastage and to make sure that the distributions of water are done on equitable basis across and within the states. Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation are the members who supported this mission.
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem – It aims to preserve the biodiversity, forest conservation and other ecological problems that are causing problems in the Himalayan region.
  • National Mission for a “Green India” – Its main goal is to expand forest and promote “Green India” by protecting, refurbishing and enhancing the forests in India which are diminishing. Its taking various measures in respond to climate change by adopting and taking different steps towards it. In 2014, Ministry of Environment and Forests got go ahead to work on this from the Cabinet.
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture – The main objective is how climatic change affects the agricultural crops and its development through various mechanisms. For example, in areas where there are more rains, it focuses on integrated farming, uses of water efficiently, soil health management, etc. It got approval from the government in 2010.
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change – It aims for the climatic changes and its impact. The mission tries to improve through research and international collaboration. The mission is run by the Department of Science and Technology.

International Agreements/efforts 

By international agreements we mean treaties or contract between different countries for different global issues like air pollution, climate change, protection of the ozone layer, etc. International agreements have different names like treaties, pacts, protocols, acts, etc.

Most of the agreements are legally binding between the countries that have approved them. Each nation has respective responsibilities under the agreements.

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substance is a global agreement to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of various substances that are responsible for ozone reduction. The main objective of the Montreal Protocol was to protect the ozone layer by taking different steps to manage the production and consumption of depleting substances (ODS) and to remove it completely.

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The Montreal Protocol was signed on 26th August, 1987 which was approved by 197 countries and it was effective from 26th August, 1989 in Montreal.

Rio Summit

Rio Summit or The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit was the major United Nations conference which was held on Rio from 3rd to 14th June, 1992.

The main objective of the summit was to stop the destruction of various natural resources and to handle pollution which is affecting the planet. And the condition of the global environment and its association between economics, science and the environment in a political context. 105 countries participated in the Earth Summit, for this development.

Convention on Biodiversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international treaty with three main objectives :-

  1. Conservation of biodiversity
  2. Sustainable use of biodiversity
  3. Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits which occur from the genetic recourses.  

This treaty was signed on 5th June, 1992 and was effective from 29th December, 1993. Over 196 countries participated in Rio de Janeiro.

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement which was extended on 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change like to reduce the greenhouse gas emission based on scientific agreement.

This Protocol was signed on 11th December, 1997 and was effective from 16th February, 2005 in Kyoto. Over 192 countries participated in this.

Paris Agreement

Paris Agreement is an international agreement to fight against climate change. The main objective of this agreement was to stop global warming and the threat of the dangerous climatic changes. Over 195 countries participated for the Paris Agreement from 30th November to 11th December, 2015.

International Solar Alliance

In International Solar Alliance over 122 countries participated and the same was initiated by India and founded in year 2015. The main objective of this alliance is to increase the use of solar energy among the International Solar Alliance member countries in convenient, safe, affordable and sustainable manner.

Vision and mission of the International Solar Alliance is to provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar resource rich countries where the global community, including bilateral and multilateral organizations, corporate, industry, and other stakeholders, can make a positive contribution to assist and help achieve the common goals of increasing the use of solar energy in meeting energy needs of prospective ISA member countries in a safe, convenient, affordable, equitable and sustainable manner.

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