ugcnetpaper1.com
Best Guide for NTA NET Exam Paper1

Short Notes on Various Environmental Protection Act | New Topic

Study Notes Based People, Development and Environment Unit of UGC NET Syllabus 2019

4

Environmental Protection Act

Study Notes Based People, Development and Environment Unit of UGC NET Syllabus 2019

Environmental Protection Act of 1986

19th November 1986, Environment Protection Act came in force in the Parliament of India in the wake of Bhopal Tragedy. It is under Article 253 of the Indian Constitution. The Environment Protection Act is mainly to the protection and development of the environment from the danger of human beings, other living being, plants and property.

It mainly focuses on the prevention and development of pollution in the environment and the causes of human health if any accident happens.

National Action Plan on Climate Change

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) an initiative formulated by Government of India on 30th June 2008 to deal with the future policies and programs for the climatic improvement and adjustment. It put together the national plan on water, renewable energy, energy efficiency agriculture, etc.

The executions of the Action plan are constituted under 8 missions that are responsible to achieve the goals of adaptation and improvement. They are as follows:

National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) an initiative formulated by Government of India on 30th June 2008 to deal with the future policies and programs for the climatic improvement and adjustment. It put together the national plan on water, renewable energy, energy efficiency agriculture, etc. The executions of the Action plan are constituted under 8 missions that are responsible to achieve the goals of adaptation and improvement. They are as follows:

  • National Solar Mission – The main objective is to use solar energy for power generation and other uses. To promote the use of solar power, this initiative was started in 2010.
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency – The main objective is to save and promote maximum energy by developing new policies and measures. In 2009, the Prime Minister’s Council approved it on Climate Change.
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat – It emphasized on Energy conservation on urban waste, management recycling which includes the production of power from waste, development of energy efficiency in buildings and use of public transport. Prime Minister approved this mission in 2011.
  • National Water Mission – To improve water efficiency through pricing and other measures. The main objective of the mission is to help to preserve water, minimize wastage and to make sure that the distributions of water are done on an equitable basis across and within the states. Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation are the members who supported this mission.
  • National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem – It aims to preserve the biodiversity, forest conservation and other ecological problems that are causing problems in the Himalayan region.
  • National Mission for a “Green India” – Its main goal is to expand the forest and promote “Green India” by protecting, refurbishing and enhancing the forests in India which are diminishing. It’s taking various measures in responding to climate change by adopting and taking different steps towards it. In 2014, Ministry of Environment and Forests got go-ahead to work on this from the Cabinet.
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture – The main objective is how climatic change affects crops and their development through various mechanisms. For example, in areas where there are more rains, it focuses on integrated farming, use of water efficiently, soil health management, etc. It got approval from the government in 2010.
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change – It aims for the climatic changes and its impact. The mission tries to improve through research and international collaboration. The mission is run by the Department of Science and Technology.

International Agreements/efforts 

By international agreements, we mean treaties or contract between different countries for different global issues like air pollution, climate change, protection of the ozone layer, etc. International agreements have different names like treaties, pacts, protocols, acts, etc.
Most of the agreements are legally binding between the countries that have approved them. Each nation has respective responsibilities under the agreements.

 

Climate Change Organisation

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substance is a global agreement to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of various substances that are responsible for ozone reduction. The main objective of the Montreal Protocol was to protect the ozone layer by taking different steps to manage the production and consumption of depleting substances (ODS) and to remove it completely.

 

It was agreed on 26 August 1987, and entered into force on 16 September 1989, following the first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989.
Signed: 16 September 1987
Related Posts
1 of 4

Rio Summit

Rio Summit or The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), also known as the Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit was the major United Nations conference which was held on Rio from 3rd to 14th June 1992.

The main objective of the summit was to stop the destruction of various natural resources and to handle pollution which is affecting the planet. And the condition of the global environment and its association between economics, science and the environment in a political context. 105 countries participated in the Earth Summit, for this development.

Convention on Biodiversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is an international treaty with three main objectives:-

  1. Conservation of biodiversity
  2. Sustainable use of biodiversity
  3. Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits which occur from the genetic recourses.  

This treaty was signed on 5th June 1992 and was effective from 29th December 1993. Over 196 countries participated in Rio de Janeiro.

UNFCCC – United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change

The UNFCCC secretariat (UN Climate Change) was established in 1992 when countries adopted the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

  • The UNFCCC entered into force on 21 March 1994. Today, it has near-universal membership. The 197 countries that have ratified the Convention are called Parties to the Convention.
  • The convention is legally non-binding but makes provisions for the meeting called ‘protocols’ where negotiating countries can set legally binding limits

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement which was extended on the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change like to reduce the greenhouse gas emission based on scientific agreement.

  • This Protocol was signed on 11th December 1997 and was effective from 16th February 2005 in Kyoto. Over 192 countries participated in this.
  • India has ratified the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol known as the Doha Amendment to the protocol

Paris Agreement

Paris Agreement is an international agreement to fight against climate change. The main objective of this agreement was to stop global warming and the threat of dangerous climatic changes. Over 195 countries participated in the Paris Agreement from 30th November to 11th December 2015.

  • The Paris Agreement opened for signature on 22 April 2016 – Earth Day – at UN Headquarters in New York. It entered into force on 4 November 2016.
  • Holding the increase in the global average  temperature to well below 2 °C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels

International Solar Alliance

In International Solar Alliance over 122 countries participated and the same was initiated by India and founded in the year 2015.

  • The main objective of this alliance is to increase the use of solar energy among the International Solar Alliance member countries in a convenient, safe, affordable and sustainable manner.
  • Vision and mission of the International Solar Alliance is to provide a dedicated platform for cooperation among solar resource-rich countries where the global community, including bilateral and multilateral organizations, corporate, industry, and other stakeholders, can make a positive contribution to assist and help achieve the common goals of increasing the use of solar energy in meeting energy needs of prospective ISA member countries in a safe, convenient, affordable, equitable and sustainable manner.
  • Its major objectives include global deployment of over 1,000GW of solar generation capacity and mobilisation of investment of over US $1000 billion into solar energy by 2030.
Source Image Source

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

  1. Neethu Vijayan says

    please ensure the signed date of montreal protocol.. Its on 16 th september 1987.

    1. UGCNETPAPER1 Team says

      16 September is International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer. It celebrates the anniversary of the day the Montreal Protocol came into effect.
      It was agreed on 26 August 1987, and entered into force on 16 September 1989, following a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989.
      Signed: 16 September 1987

  2. johnsi says

    thanks a lot

  3. Boby says

    Paper 1 syllabus

This website uses cookies to improve your experience. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Accept Read More