Important Environmental Organizations

Important Environmental Organizations related to environment conservation

Are you planning to take the UGC NET exam? That’s a smart move since it will determine whether you are eligible for Assistant Professor and Junior Research Fellowship (JRF). For you to become eligible for Assistant professor, you need to pass it with flying colors, though.

Table of Contents

You have no choice but to pass both Papers I and II. As far as Paper I is concerned, you need to be prepared for all ten categories. One of them is People and Environment.

Similar to other topics based on the latest NTA UGC NET EXAM Syllabus…We have covered the people and environment syllabus topics in 8 parts as below along with the last 16 Years’ solved Question paper at the end of the tutorial.

  • You are advised to go through them in sequence and attempt the MCQ Question only after completion of all topics listed below.
  • Not only this there is some additional note that has been provided specifically for this section as it was seen that the same question was asked from recent affairs based on people and environment.

Unit-IX People, Development, and Environment

  1. Development and environment: Millennium development and Sustainable development goals.

  2. Human and environment interaction: Anthropogenic activities and their impacts on the environment.

  3. Environmental issues: Local, Regional and Global; Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution, Noise pollution, Waste (solid, liquid, biomedical, hazardous, electronic), Climate change and its Socio-Economic and Political Dimensions. [This Post]

  4. Impacts of pollutants on human health.

  5. Natural and energy resources: Solar, Wind, Soil, Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass, Nuclear and Forests.

  6. Natural hazards and disasters: Mitigation strategies.

  7. Environmental Protection Act (1986), National Action Plan on Climate Change, International agreements/efforts -Montreal Protocol, Rio Summit, Convention on Biodiversity, Kyoto Protocol, Paris Agreement, International Solar Alliance.

  8. MCQ Based on People, Development, and Environment(Coming Soon)

Additional Notes –

Must Read – 40 Major International/Indian Environmental Organizations Fighting Issues

This article discusses essential organizations for the environment, and knowing about them could make all the difference. Check them out!

The organizations are subdivided into two groups, international and Indian organizations.

International Environmental Organisation

1 World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

It is an international NGO that came into existence in 1961 on 29th April. Formerly known as World Wide Fund, the organization advocates for wilderness preservation. It also aims to reduce the impact of humans on the environment. Its headquarters are in Rue Mauverney 28 Gland, Vaud, Switzerland

2 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)

Formerly known as the World Conversational Union and International Union for the Protection of Nature, this international organization revolves around nature conservation. It also works on how natural resources should be used sustainably. It was founded in 1948, whereas its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland.

3 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

This intergovernmental body is part of the United Nations. Its focus is on the contribution of humans toward climate change. Additionally, it oversees how it impacts the economic, political, and natural aspects of the world. It also touches on risks and reasonable cause of action for human-induced climate change. It was formed in 1988, and its headquarters are Geneva, Switzerland.

4 United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

It focuses on how to respond to environmental issues with excellent coordination. From leadership to science delivery to solutions development, the organization targets several issues. They include green economic development, terrestrial ecosystems, marine management, and climate change. It was founded in 1972, and its headquarters are in Nairobi, Kenya.

5 World Meteorological Organization (WMO)

It is a United Nations specialized agency obliged to promote international cooperation as far as geophysics, hydrology, atmospheric science, and climatology. Initially, it was a weather data and research forum that was formed in 1873. At that time, the non-governmental organization’s name was the International Meteorological Organization. WMO was founded in 1950, and its headquarters are in Geneva, Switzerland.

6 International Whaling Commission (IWC)

As the name suggests, this international body focuses on whales. It is based on the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW) held in 1946. It was formed that same year. To develop the whaling industry in an orderly manner, the involved parties saw the need to facilitate proper conversation of the whale stocks. With about 88 member nations, its headquarters are in Impington, United Kingdom.

7 BirdLife International

It is a non-governmental organization founded in 1922 and focuses on birds. Besides fighting against their extinction, they also focus on their habitats. They identify and safeguard essential sites for birds, maintain and restore their main habitats and empower conservationists globally. Its headquarter is Cambridge, United Kingdom.

8 TRAFFIC (Wildlife Trade Monitoring Network)

It is a non-governmental organization working across the world on sustainable development and biodiversity. Its focus is the trade of wild animals as well as plants. The organization doesn’t want a scenario where that trade would threaten the conservation of nature. It came about after a strategic collaboration between WWF and IUCN. It was founded in 1976, whereas its headquarters are Cambridge, UK.

9 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

It is a multilateral treaty focused on the protection of endangered animals and plants. It ensures that trading wild animals and plants isn’t a danger to their survival. The resolution that led to its drafting was during the IUCN meeting held in 1963. It became official through signing in 1973 but started its operation in 1975. Its headquarters are Geneva, Switzerland.

10 South Asia Wildlife Enforcement Network (SAWEN)

It is a regional inter-governmental body advocating for the conservation of flora and fauna. To achieve that, eight countries in South Asia came up with collective goals and strategies to combat illegal trade within their boundaries. They include Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Maldives, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. Its secretariat is Kathmandu, Nepal.

11 Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR)

It is an International Science Council (ISC) interdisciplinary body, and its focus is the Antarctica region, Southern Asian area included. It contributes towards the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings by offering independent advice. It also provides information to various international bodies, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the IPCC. Its responsibility is to initiate, develop and coordinate international science research efforts in the region. It has Science Groups in charge of its scientific work. It was founded in 1958.

12 World Nature Organization (WNO)

This inter-governmental organization focuses on promoting global environmental protection and was founded in 2010. Its member states came together due to threats emanating from the rising sea levels. Its treaty became official in 2014 on 1st May, and it is essential to note that India is not its member.

13 Global Alliance for Climate-Smart Agriculture (GACSA)

It is a platform that’s part of Climate-smart Agriculture (CSA). Its focus is no different from CSA since its focus is improving food security and nutrition despite climate change. It works on improving agricultural productivity and what farmers pocket without overlooking sustainability. It aims to reduce agricultural greenhouse gas emissions and make farmers resilient to climate change and extreme weather conditions.

14 Arctic Council

It is an intergovernmental forum that focuses on issues that the people and the governments of the Arctic region face. The member states include the United States, Sweden, Russia, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Denmark, and Canada. All the 8 have sovereignty of land within the Arctic Circle. It was founded in 1996, whereas its headquarters are Tromso, Norway.

15 Global Environment Facility (GEF)

It is an organization striving to achieve sustainable development programs and address environmental issues cutting across the globe. It was founded in 1992 during the Rio Earth Summit. Ever since then, it has funded a long list of projects in up to 170 countries. It has 184 member states, and it is located in Washington, District of Columbia, US.

16 Global Climate Change Alliance (GCCA)

It was formed by European Union (EU) in efforts of reaching out to developing countries, precisely the Small Island Developing States (SIDs) and the Least Developed States (LDCs). Its focus includes reducing poverty, mainstreaming climate change. Furthermore, it aims to strategize the mitigation and adaptation to climate change. There is also increasing resilience when shocks and stresses related to climate emerge. It was founded in 2007.

17 Climate Action Network (CAN)

It is an international network comprising more than 1300 non-governmental organizations working on the environment in more than 130 countries. It focuses on promoting individual and government actions in ensuring that human-induced climate change stays at ecologically sustainable levels. It was founded in 1989, and its headquarter is Bonn, Germany.

18 Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF)

It is a global partnership including governments, civil society, businesses, and indigenous people. Its focus is REDD+, which involves reducing emissions, managing forests sustainably, conserving and enhancing forest carbon stocks. It has 47 REDD countries participating so far. 18, 18, and 11 are in Africa, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific, respectively.

19 Global Tiger Forum (GTF)

It is an international inter-governmental body focusing on the protection of tigers. It was established in 1994 following its recommendation during the 1993 International Symposium on Tiger Conservation held in New Delphi. Coincidentally, its headquarters are in New Delhi.

20 Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI)

It is an international organization based on a treaty to promote green growth. That’s to be achieved by balancing economic growth and environmental sustainability. It was formed in 2010, and its headquarters are in Seoul, South Korea. So far, its members are not less than 30 states.

Indian Environmental Organization

21 Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEF&CC)

It is a ministry in the government of India. It plans, promotes, coordinates, and oversees the implementation of programs related to forestry and the environment at large. It is in charge of conserving wild animals, plants, wilderness areas, and forests. Besides, it mitigates land degradation, deforestation, and pollution while also controlling afforestation. Its headquarters are in Indira Paryavaran Bhavan, Jorbagh Road, New Delhi

22 Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI)

It is a statutory advisory body that advises the Ministry of Animal Husbandry, Dairying, and Fisheries of the Government of India. Its headquarters are Ballabhgarh, Haryana.

23 Central Zoo Authority (CZA)

It is a body of India’s government and an affiliate member of the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA). As the name suggests, it is in charge of overseeing the zoos and bringing them to international standards. It was founded in 1992.

24 National Biodiversity Authority (NBA)

This statutory autonomous body was formed in 2003. It is under the Government of India Ministry of Environment, Forests, and Climate Change. Its establishment resulted from the signing of the Convectional of Biological Diversity by India back in 1992. Consequently, the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 came along. That’s when the body was formed for the implementation of the provisions of the act. Its headquarters are in Chennai, India.

25 Wildlife Crime Control Bureau (WCCB)

It is a statutory body founded in 2006 to fight against organized wildlife crime. It is under the Government of India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. It is important to note that its operations commenced in 2008. Its headquarters are in Trikoot-1 Building, 2nd Floor, Bhikaji Cama Place, New Delhi-110066.

26 National Green Tribunal (NGT)

The name says it all. It solves human-wildlife conflicts and settles cases related to the same. It advocates for the compensation of people or properties destroyed by wildlife. Additionally, it handles cases concerning the protection and conservation of the environment, including forests and natural resources. It was formed in 2010 following the National Green Tribunal Act 2010.

27 National Board of Wildlife (NBWL)

The statutory advisory body advises the government on matters concerning wildlife conservation in India. It also promotes wildlife and forest development and conservation. It is in charge of the wildlife sanctuaries and national park boundaries; hence can’t be altered without its permission. It also reviews and approves projects around these areas. It is constituted under the Wildlife Protection Act, 1972.

28 Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee (GEAC)

It is a statutory body that regulates biotechnology in India. It focuses on genetically engineered cells and organisms or hazardous microorganisms in India. The organization regulates how they are used, manufactured, stored, imported, and exported. Initially, its name was Genetic Engineering Approval Committee until 2010, when it got its name. It is under the Government of India’s Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change.

29 Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)

It is a statutory organization under India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change. It was formed in 1974, and its functions are governed by several acts, the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974, the Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981, and the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. It offers the ministry technical services. It also offers State Pollution Control Boards technical assistance, guides them, coordinates their activities, and resolves disputes whenever a need arises.

30 National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA)

It came as a result of a recommendation of a Tiger Task Force to reorganize the management of 1973 Project Tiger and other Tiger Reserves in the country, which are about 51. India’s Prime Minister was in charge of its constitution, and its establishment took place in December 2005.

31 National Afforestation and Eco-Development Board (NAEB)

The organization was formed in August 1992. Its focus is mainly on protected areas such as sanctuaries, national areas, degraded lands, and forest areas adjacent to forests. Its primary role is to promote eco-development, ecological restoration, afforestation, and tree planting through related activities. It also pays attention to Western Ghats, Aravallis, and Western Himalayas, among other ecologically fragile geographical areas

32 Wildlife Institute of India (WII)

It is an independent institution providing natural resource service. Its wildlife research is on Climate Change, Habitat Ecology, Ecotoxicology, Ecodevelopment, Spatial Modeling, Wildlife Forensics, Wildlife Policy, Endangered Species, Wildlife Management, and Biodiversity. It is under the Government of India’s Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change. Its establishment took place in 1982.

33 Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA)

It is a national advisory council responsible for monitoring, providing technical help, and evaluating compensatory activities. It aims to provide transparency regarding forest land diversion to create room for private or governmental projects.

34 Zoological Survey of India (ZSI)

It was formed in 1916 as the first organization in India about zoological studies and research. Its founder was the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change of India. It focuses on promoting research, surveying, and exploring the country’s fauna, whereas its headquarters are in Kolkata.

35 Botanical Survey of India (BSI)

It was formed in 1890 to promote research, survey, and conservation of the country’s flora. Besides flora, it also focuses on the country’s plant wealth and endangered species. It collects and maintains the gene bank and germplasm of plant species that are either vulnerable, patent, or endangered. Its founder was the Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change of India. Its headquarters are in Kolkata.

36 Forest Survey of India (FSI)

It was formed in 1981, and its founder was the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change of India. It focuses on promoting research, survey, and studies of the country’s forests. The findings help in the consistent monitoring of changes in forest resources and land. Equally important, the data helps the government plan, conserve and manage sustainable environmental protection. It is also in charge of implementing social forestry programs. Its headquarters are in at Dehradun in Uttarakhand.

37 National Ganga Council

Formed in 2016, the central role of this organization is to clean up the River Ganga. As a matter of fact, its full name is the National Council for Rejuvenation, Protection, and Management of River Ganga. It was constituted under the River Ganga (Rejuvenation, Protection, and Management) Authorities Order, 2016. Its chair is the Prime Minister of India. Its member states are those within the River Ganga Basin or along its major tributaries. They include Delhi-NCR, Jharkhand, Haryana, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, and Himachal. Pradesh

38 Wildlife Trust of India (WTI)

This nature conservation organization has lived up to its name ever since its formation in 1998. It focuses on conserving wildlife and habitat without overlooking the welfare of each world life as an individual. Its headquarters are in Noida, Uttar Pradesh.

39 Bombay Natural History Society (BNHS)

It is among India’s largest non-governmental organizations working on research in biodiversity and conservation. It funds various researches through grants and collaborates with famous naturalists, including S. Dillon Ripley and Salim Ali. It was formed in 1883, and its headquarters are in Hornbill House, Mumbai (Bombay), India.

40 Environmentalist Foundation of India

This environmental conservation group has two significant areas of focus, habitat restoration and wildlife conservation. It is famous for promoting biodiversity, especially in India’s lakes, by cleaning and restoring them scientifically. Despite starting in 2007, its registration occurred in 2011. It covers Chennai, Coimbatore, Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Trivandrum, Bangalore, Puducherry, and Hyderabad.


Understanding all the above international and Indian environmental organizations is a step closer to passing your UGC NET exam. As you prepare for it, do it thoroughly to ensure that you pass with flying colors. Add more knowledge on this category, people, and Environment, and don’t forget the other nine and Paper-II.

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