Study Notes on Different Types of Pramana
UGC NET Syllabus of Logical Reasoning
- Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, the structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, and Classical square of opposition.
- Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.
- Venn diagram: Simple and multiple uses for establishing the validity of arguments.
- Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.
- Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana(Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).(Covered in this article)
- Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).
Logical reasoning is an analysis of a test that checks a particular ability. It could have verbal or numerical questions. It is a process where one tries to apply several reasons to come to a conclusion.
Indian Logical Reasoning has made its place in UGC’s syllabus. They have introduced Different Types of Pramanas and their uses in the new syllabus. Pramana, a Sanskrit word, literally means “proof” and “means of knowledge”. The study of Pramanas is called Nyaya. It is a very critical topic to understand the laws of Indian Logic and the philosophy of knowledge. It has a different school of thought and philosophies through which a person can understand the world.
Different Types of Pramanas
In Hindu philosophy, Pramana means proof or evidence, and it is used to validate knowledge. The different types of Pramanas are the means of acquiring knowledge in Hindu philosophy.
The Vedas and the Upanishads outline six types of Pramanas or proofs, which are used to establish the truth of a given proposition.
In this article, we will discuss the different types of Pramanas in detail.
The concept of Pramana plays a crucial role in Hindu philosophy. It provides a framework for understanding how knowledge is acquired and validated. The six types of Pramanas are:
- Pratyaksha (Perception)
- Anumana (Inference)
- Upamana (Comparison or Analogy)
- Shabda (Verbal Testimony)
- Arthapatti (Presumption or Postulation)
- Anupalabdhi (Non-Perception)
Different Types of Pramanas
According to the Vedic philosophy, there are 6 types of Pramanas. They are as follows:
Pratyaksha Pramana (Perception)
Pramana is based on the direct knowledge acquired through perception. It is the most important type of Pramana as it forms the basis of all other types of Pramanas. Pratyaksha or perception is further divided into two types:
- Laukika (Ordinary Perception) – Perception of objects that can be seen, heard, touched, tasted or smelled.
- Alaukika (Extraordinary Perception) – Perception of objects that cannot be perceived by ordinary senses, like telepathy or clairvoyance.
– By Pratyaksha Pramana we mean knowledge-based through perception. It can be direct or indirect to any person.
- Direct perception – It takes place through our sensory organs directly. Like… nose (smell), skin (touch), eyes (see), ears (sound), and tongue (taste). Here the knowledge takes place when it is in direct contact with the sensory organs. It is also known as anubhava or experience.
- Indirect perception – The knowledge happens based upon smriti or memory. For example, we all know what an apple looks like. This knowledge gets fed into our memory. So, whenever we see red-coloured and round-shaped fruit, we can easily associate it with an apple. Our memory directly categorizes it.
Anumana Pramana (Assumption)
Anumana or inference is the second type of Pramana, which is based on reasoning. It involves drawing conclusions based on premises that are already known. Anumana can be further divided into two types:
- Svārthānumāna – Inference of one’s own self-existence.
- Parārthānumāna – Inference of the existence of something other than oneself.
Here the knowledge is gained not through any sense organs but through anumana or assumption. We assume knowledge of what we don’t see from what we see.
For example, we can assume the physical or emotional pain when we see someone crying or we can relate fire with the smell of smoke.
Upamana Pramana (Comparison)
Upamana or comparison is the third type of Pramana, which involves drawing similarities between two objects. Upamana is used to understand the nature of an object by comparing it to something that is already known. It is an important tool in the process of learning and acquiring knowledge
It is a kind of knowledge we get by the assumption of similarity between the two different types of knowledge. It is basically based on comparison and not just only perception and assumptions.
For example, a person knows a four-legged animal which barks is called a dog. Therefore, when he goes to a jungle and see a similar-looking animal he can relate that it’s a wild dog which has also four leg and barks.
This knowledge is possible when there is an earlier similarity with a particular thing which helps the person to compare both similar things.
Arthapatti Pramana (Assumption or Implication)
Arthapatti or presumption is the fouth type of Pramana, which is based on assumption. It involves accepting a proposition as true based on the presumption that it is necessary to explain a certain phenomenon. Arthapatti is also known as the Pramana of postulation.
By Arthapatti Pramana, we understand the knowledge which we get through the relation and its implications. It includes supposition, belief and presumption.
We get this type of knowledge either what we have seen or heard and by pure assumption.
For example, if a healthy person says that he does not sleep at night, with this supposition, belief and presumption, we can think that he sleeps during the day. Without assumption, it is difficult to explain how a man can be healthy without sleeping.
Assumption and implication are thus are very useful theory which make logical arguments.
Anupalabdhi Pramana (Apprehension and Non- Apprehension)
Anupalabdhi or non-perception is the fifth type of Pramana, which is based on the absence of knowledge. It involves accepting a proposition as true because it cannot be proven false. Anupalabdhi is also known as the Pramana of negation
It is basically based on the apprehension of a non-existent thing which is based on non-perception.
For example, if there are no students in the class, as we cannot see any student in the class at that moment we conclude that there are no students in the class.
Shabda Pramana (Word or Verbal Statement)
Shabda or verbal testimony is the sixth type of Pramana, which is based on the word of an authority. It involves accepting the truth of a proposition based on the testimony of someone who is considered an authority in that particular field. Shabda is considered to be the most reliable of all the Pramanas.
This is mainly through verbal indication. We get a lot of knowledge through verbal statements, symbols, texts or words. We either say this or write. A verbal statement must have a valid cause for its information to be true. Earlier in Indian philosophy Vedas were considered to be the most reliable source of knowledge.
But, western philosophers discarded this idea and named it context-based knowledge. In modern times, we rely on books, newspapers, TV news, etc. to form our opinion.
Further Suggested Reading –
UGC NET Paper 1 study notes have combined all the topics from the latest syllabus and explained them in an easier way. You should be also able to print them in PDF for your offline reading.
Please see the topic-wise link below-
- Unit-I Teaching Aptitude-Based Question
- Unit-II Research Aptitude-Based Question
- Unit-III Comprehension-Based Question
- Unit-IV Communication-Based Question
- Unit-V Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude-Based Question
- Unit-VI Logical Reasoning-Based Question
- Unit-VII Data Interpretation-Based Question
- Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based Question
- Unit-IX People, Development and Environment-Based Question
- Unit-X Higher Education System-Based Question
The concept of Pramana is central to Hindu philosophy, and the different types of Pramanas provide a framework for understanding how knowledge is acquired and validated. Pratyaksha, Anumana, Upamana, Shabda, Arthapatti, and Anupalabdhi are the six types of Pramanas and each one of these Pramanas plays a crucial role in establishing the truth of a given proposition.
The importance of Pramana lies in its ability to provide a rational and logical framework for understanding the nature of reality.
It is essential to note that the different types of Pramanas are not mutually exclusive. They can be used in conjunction with one another to establish the truth of a proposition. The proper application of Pramanas can help in the acquisition of knowledge and the development of a rational and logical worldview.
What is Pramana?
Pramana is a Sanskrit term that means proof or evidence. In Hindu philosophy, it refers to the means of acquiring knowledge and establishing the truth of a given proposition.
What are the six types of Pramanas?
The six types of Pramanas are Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana (Comparison or Analogy), Shabda (Verbal Testimony), Arthapatti (Presumption or Postulation), and Anupalabdhi (Non-Perception).
Which is the most important type of Pramana?
Pratyaksha or perception is considered to be the most important type of Pramana as it forms the basis of all other types of Pramanas.
Can the different types of Pramanas be used in conjunction with one another?
Yes, the different types of Pramanas can be used in conjunction with one another to establish the truth of a proposition.