(Logical Reasoning Study Material for UGC NET JRF Based on Updated Syllabus)
UGC NET Syllabus of Logical Reasoning
- Understanding the structure of arguments: argument forms, the structure of categorical propositions, Mood and Figure, Formal and Informal fallacies, Uses of language, Connotations and denotations of terms, Classical square of opposition.
- Evaluating and distinguishing deductive and inductive reasoning.
- Analogies. (Covered in this article)
- Venn diagram: Simple and multiple uses for establishing the validity of arguments.
- Indian Logic: Means of knowledge.
- Pramanas: Pratyaksha (Perception), Anumana (Inference), Upamana(Comparison), Shabda (Verbal testimony), Arthapatti (Implication) and Anupalabddhi (Non-apprehension).
- Structure and kinds of Anumana (inference), Vyapti (invariable relation), Hetvabhasas (fallacies of inference).
Analogies: Concepts & Basics
In this article we have covered the important topic ‘Analogies’ based on UGC NET EXAM Syllabus. If you see the previous year’s Question based on logical reasoning you will find that 1-2 Question were asked based on Analogies that too mostly from Number based or Letter Analogies.
So we have covered important concepts and tricks to solve questions based on analogies for UGC NET Exam Syllabus. We have also covered different types of Verbal Reasoning Analogy Questions and Answers to explain details around those.
This topic is asked in various examination and in ‘SSC’ and ‘Railways based examination multiple types of question are asked based on all three types of Analogies (Number, Letter, Word based)
Let’s see in details-
What is Analogies
‘Analogy’ means ‘correspondence’ or ‘Similar items’. In other words, we can say the similarity or similar relation existence between the given subject.
In analogy based question section, you will find that a particular relationship is given and another similar relationship has to identify from the alternatives provided.
Analogy based tests are meant to test a candidate’s overall knowledge, power of verbal reasoning and ability to think concisely and accurately.There is three types of Analogy-
- Number Analogy
- Letter Analogy
- Word Analogy
Types of Question Pattern of analogy
When you see questions based on analogy, it will be mostly a pair of numbers/letters/words is given that have certain relationship between them.
This pair will have followed by a third numbers/letters/words.
The candidate needs to first identify the relationship between the pair of numbers/letters/words given and then find out the FOURTH numbers/letters/wore such that the relationship between the third and the fourth numbers/letters/words satisfy similar to relationship between the first and the second numbers/letters/words.
Sometime Question were asked to fill in the blanks based on similar pattern.
The candidates are asked to identify and point out relationships, similarities or differences, and dissimilarities in a series or between groups of numbers.
In most of the cases relationships between the numbers in a given pair can be any of the following:
- One number is a multiple of the other.
- One number is the square or square root of the other.
- One number is the cube or cube root of the other.
- The two numbers can be consecutive, even, odd or prime numbers.
Understanding Number Analogy is a crucial step in solving questions on reasoning ability. The reasoning ability is checked mainly by the questions related to Number Analogy.
Examples based on Number Analogy
#1 What number will follow the given series of numbers: 3, 6, 11, __ _?
The missing term is = **2 + 2 = 18. Hence the answer is 18.
#2 121 : 12 : : 25 : ?
The relationship is x2 : (x + 1).
The questions based on letter analogy are similar to number analogy. Here, the questions are based on the relationship between two groups of letters on each side of the sign : : .
Normally, three pairs of letters are given followed by a question mark where the fourth pair of letters is supposed to come.
Examples based on Letter Analogy
#1 Find the missing term : YWZX : USVT : : MKNL : ?
(a) IGGH (b) IGJH (c) IGJJ (d) IGHH
Alphabets are used in reverse order. In the first term, the order of alphabet is 2, 4, 1 and 3 and in the second term, the order is 6, 8, 5 and 7. So, the missing term is IGJH.
#2 ? : I K M O : : Q S U W : YA C E
(a) ACEG (b) ADEG (c) ACDG (d) ADDG
In each group, one letter is skipped between every two consecutive letters. So, the missing term will be ACEG.
In word analogy questions there is a certain relationship between the two given words on one side of’:: ’ and one word is given on the other side.
Students are asked to find the correct alternative that has same relationship with that word.
Tip! Look Out for the Kinds of Relationship they exhibit
There are many possibilities in establishing a relationship. Here are some useful points on the basic knowledge required for the test.
- Tool and Action
- Worker and Working Place (Eg: Farmer : Field : : Doctor : Hospital)
- Worker and Product (Eg: Carpenter : Furniture : : Mason : Wall)
- Quantity and Unit (Eg: Length : Metre : : Distance : Light Year)
- Instrument and Measurement
- Study and Topic (Eg: Botany : Plants : : Ornithology : Birds)
- Word and Antonym
- Person and field
- Book & author
Examples based on Word Analogy
#1 Sailor : Ship : : Lawyer : ?
(a) Legal (b) Law (c) Court (d) Ruling
‘Sailor’ works at ‘Ship’, similarly ‘Lawyer’ works at ‘Court’.
#2 Love : Hate : : Create : ?
(a) Make (b) Renovate (c) Destroy (d) Building
Solution.(c) ‘Hate’ is just opposite of ‘Love’. Similarly, ‘Destroy’ is just opposite of ‘Create’.
#3 In each of the following questions, select the related word from the given alternatives.
Book : Publisher : : Film ; ?
(a)Writer (b) Editor (c) Director (d) Producer
#4 Current is related to Ampere in the same way as Weight is related to
- Scale E. None of these
Current is measured in terms of Ampere and Weight is measured in terms of Pound.
#5 Fish is related to Water in the same way as Bird is related to
- None of these
Fish swims in Water and Bird flies in the Sky.
Important – This is purely practice based section and you need to solve as much as question you can solve to make your self confident on question based on these topics.
UGC NET Paper1 study notes have combined all the topics from the latest syllabus and explained them in an easier way. You should be also able to print them in PDF for your offline reading.
Please see the topic-wise link below-
- Unit-I Teaching Aptitude Based Question
- Unit-II Research Aptitude Based Question
- Unit-III Comprehension Based Question
- Unit-IV Communication Based Question
- Unit-V Mathematical Reasoning and Aptitude Based Question
- Unit-VI Logical Reasoning Based Question
- Unit-VII Data Interpretation Based Question
- Unit-VIII Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Based Question
- Unit-IX People, Development and Environment Based Question
- Unit-X Higher Education System Based Question